Research Question 2: What important developments in educational technology are missing from our list?

Instructions: Please use these prompts to help you consider what might need to be added to the current list of Horizon Topics. Add your thoughts as bullet points below, using a new bullet point for each new technology or topic. Please add your comments to previous entries if you agree or disagree.
a. What would you list among the established developments in technology that some Higher Ed institutions are using today that arguably ALL institutions should using broadly to support or enhance teaching, learning, or creative inquiry?
b. What developments in technology that have a solid user base in consumer, entertainment, or other industries should Higher Ed institutions be actively looking for ways to apply?
c. What are the key emerging technologies you see developing to the point that Higher Ed institutions should begin to take notice during the next four to five years?

Each new topic entry must include a title, a description similar to the ones that are written now, and, if needed, a rationale as to why it is different from any of the existing topics. The NMC Horizon Project research team will investigate each nomination entered here to see if it meets the criteria set for new topics (eg., that the topic represents a "real" development in technology, as opposed to a concept, a new idea, or a proposal; that it is sufficiently developed that research, projects, and information about it exist; and that it has a demonstrable link, or strong potential link, to education).

Please "sign" your contributions by marking them with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples.

Compose your entries like this:

New Development in Technology
Brief description here (3-4 sentences)


- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016 anyone comment on the VLE/LMS is dead? LONG LIVE THE ......

New Technology Developments Added by Panel

Bioauthentication assessments and proctoring. Bioauthentication works to identify students and verify authorship of their academic work through a combination of state-of-the-art technologies, including: facial recognition, voice recognition, typing pattern recognition and anti-plagiarism algorithms. While there are tools available, they are not prevalently used. There is a need for better authentication and monitoring tools and I foresee this as a potential area for growth. It can be a gamechanger.
- nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Aug 30, 2016 - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Aug 31, 2016 Yes indeed....Moocs (Coursera) are currently using facial and typing pattern recognition- bsmith bsmith Sep 24, 2016
Especially as passwords prove more difficult for users and easier to crack for attackers. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Aug 30, 2016 - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Sep 11, 2016 - ole ole Sep 11, 2016 - helga helga Sep 19, 2016 - lkoster lkoster Sep 30, 2016- Jorge.bossio Jorge.bossio Oct 2, 2016- nwitt nwitt Oct 2, 2016- deone.zell deone.zell Oct 2, 2016 - agermain agermain Oct 3, 2016 - fledezma fledezma Oct 6, 2016

Real-time messaging as a platform. - dkernohan dkernohan Aug 11, 2016 Big in the consumer space as Facebook, Skype and Slack are just the most famous names to begin to experiment with "bots" that can respond to a real-time messaging interface. These bots can respond to simple user instructions (either directly or within other conversations) to offer answers ("What's the weather like in Vancouver?", "What is 6*7?", "What's the full syntax for the ls command") or perform tasks ("Book a taxi to the airport", "Contact Neil by text message and ask him to log in", "Find me that paper by Kernohan and Thomas on OER in the UK"). We've not yet seen these come into the edtech world but the applications are many and obvious for students and staff. This is an interesting example. I'd add this into the real-time messaging topic I think.
They put a human face on AI... which matters when trying to retain students. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Aug 30, 2016
Living Actor is one interesting example. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Aug 30, 2016 - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Sep 11, 2016 Would you see this in line with virtual assistants or a separate item?- helga helga Sep 19, 2016 - hi Helga, I see virtual assistants almost as multi-function chatbots - the real innovation (I think) is the use of the chat interface as a platform for information discovery and retrieval. - dkernohan dkernohan Sep 20, 2016 If they aren't already there, I could see a "siri-type" interface in eTexts - students can search for a topic by asking the texts to find it. - lkoster lkoster Sep 30, 2016- deone.zell deone.zell Oct 2, 2016
The initiative SMILE ( Sunday Meetups 4 Innovative Learning Expeditions) has shown that using Whatsapp community of self-Directed life-long learners can be created and fostered, who are active seekers of learning experiences beyond the formal School or College environs. - rc_sharma rc_sharma Oct 2, 2016

In many respects conspicuous by their absence, I see ePortfolios increasingly being adopted into the main stream. At our own institutution after a number of years of seeking to promote uptake (push) we are now starting to get increasing demand (pull) including from within out Human Resources area for assistance in using them to support professional development. I'd be happy to acknowledge that this is mainstream practice in other institutions if that is the case, but, at least here, that has not been the case. - kevin_ashford_rowe kevin_ashford_rowe Aug 9, 2016 ePortfolios have one major reason to appeal to senior admin: their role in assessment. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Aug 30, 2016 I like the direction in which this is going, and would suggest an even broader dream that we've played with over the past few years: something along the lines of a lifelong-learning transcript (e.g., Blockchain, or what Stephen Downes has been proposing/promoting: so learners don't have to waste time going to a variety of learning organizations for transcripts every time they want to document their extensive, ongoing learning achievements.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Aug 31, 2016 - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Sep 11, 2016 - ole ole Sep 11, 2016 - helga helga Sep 19, 2016 - nwitt nwitt Oct 2, 2016 I am currently exploring the inclusion of earned "badges" in student eportfolios. Authentication is a concern that will be observed closely.- bsmith bsmith Sep 24, 2016 I think there's something to this, an evolution of our understanding of an e-portfolio and the technology to make it 'easy.' When you bring in badging, blockchain, competency-based transcripts, out-of-classroom learning, the e-portfolio is a really dynamic tool that can change how students demonstrate their learning and share it with others. - kvogt kvogt Sep 26, 2016
Agree, the topic of ePortfolios have returned several times to the agenda on campuses. The tools continue to evolve yet they seem to fail to address students needs and continue to focus on program and perhaps institutional needs. Institutional lead ePortfolio initiatives often encourage a walled-garden approach and have failed to get a wider buy-in. Vendors have worked with Teacher education institutions to address their specific needs and there appears to be a wider adoption in these schools/programs. Arts and Sciences programs have resorted to student blogs, websites and Google drive and sites to essentially have students collect and curate their work as a record of the projects they have worked on, been involved and if appropriate to share with the world. It is possible that the tools around ePortfolio, authentic assessment and learning analytics may see some conversion in the next few years. To be successful these platforms need to embrace social media and connect to networks that matter to students and employers. - mayaig mayaig Sep 27, 2016- Jorge.bossio Jorge.bossio Oct 2, 2016 - DaveP DaveP Oct 2, 2016- deone.zell deone.zell Oct 2, 2016 - matthew.worwood matthew.worwood Oct 6, 2016
The topic of ePortfolio is not new in higher ed, but it has had several setbacks in terms of its adoption in many Higher Ed institutions for several reasons, I think. First, because the use of a ePortfolio means a change in pedagogical philosophy, which is still difficult to grasp for many faculty: a fully learner centered approach, a shift in thinking about assessment where formative evaluation, self-assessment and peer-assessment are as valued as summative types of assessment. A lot of faculty development is still necessary to change an academic culture still teacher oriented in many cases. Another setback is the difficulty to find (or develop) the right type of ePortfolio which would allow not only to archive and organize learning experiences for a year, or for the years spent in the institution, but also to take and go on using the ePortfolio when one leaves school, or even to use a ePortfolio from high school to university/college to the work place, since a portfolio tells about the growth, the story of an individual. It is difficult to find ePortfolio which have been built with a vision of long-term use, across institutions or places of learning and of work. LMS such as Blackboard, Canvas, Claroline offer ePortfolio options but often lack flexibility in terms of usage. I hear that the LMS D2L will allow for a life use of its ePortfolio, but I have not seen it yet. However there is now a new concept, and new trend that seems interesting to look at: A Domain of One’s Own, a concept first developed by the University of Mary Washington and now adopted by several other universities and colleges. This concept enables students and faculty to register their own domain name and associate it with a space managed by their institution. In that Web space, students and faculty have the opportunity and flexibility to design and create their space, using a variety of Web applications and databases that they can easily install. A Domain of One’s Own therefore gives students and faculty the opportunity to build out their own “e-portfolio” with the flexibility to easily migrate and transport data when they graduate (students) or move institution (faculty). Here are several examples: or , or Here are several websites discussing this concept: and (TED presentation) . And here are examples of impact on students and faculty: . UMW faculty, DTLT staff, and a UMW student talk about the impact of "A Domain of One's Own" on teaching and learning, as well as where the LMS fit's into all this. - agermain agermain Oct 2, 2016 - alexandra.pickett alexandra.pickett Oct 5, 2016 When coupled with the notion that the eportfolio can serve as the repository of evidence of competency/skills/knowledge/experience one can see the opportunities for prior learning assessments, and the incorporation of badges/microcredentials and alternative degree models emerge. It becomes a Living Learning Transcript.
- tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 26, 2016 I would second that notion. As our products become more diverse (more than a senior thesis paper, for instance) the need to have a flexible platform for distributing that content post-college becomes more challenging. The problem here has also been the vendors like Blackboard who offer a product that essentially forfeits control from the student to the corporation. Of course, you could say the same thing about Flickr or YouTube if that's the sole repository of your data. This gets into larger questions about data liberation rights and digital persistence pretty quickly. I think we need to encourage open repositories that are perhaps controlled by a consortium of educational institutions using Open Source software. That give students a safe place to put their materials for the long term without fear of its disappearance or being charged fees for its maintenance. This is why we have "Public" Libraries of information to store our old style records (books ;-)) rather than relying on private collections. Most ePortfolio solutions I've seen amount to the equivalent of "Private" Collections when they really should be public. I might be tempted to put some of these issues under "wicked" problems to be solved. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 26, 2016

While these topics have been trending in the recent past, I believe that these will continue. Gamification coupled with mobile application is a common trend currently and this is likely to carry forward. I see this not only in actual teaching and learning, but also in engaging students/faculty activities in social settings related to educational institutions. For instance, it can be in student life activities. - nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Sep 9, 2016 I think Gamification has jumped the shark. All the promise has delivered little new. Sure, games are fun. And yes, games can work in a leaning context. But Gamificiation itself has done little to increase our understanding of games or of learning. Ian Bogost has a pretty good criticism of this in his new book I vote this topic off the island! - david.thomas david.thomas Sep 19, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 26, 2016
And yet the protein folding game moves from strength to strength.- bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Sep 20, 2016
Gamification is not the same as using games - I think the differentiation is critical. So many platforms/applications use gamification. This has become so part of life that people do not recognize this as elements of gamification. LMS, Khan academy, Coursera use elements of gamification too . Claim that all the promise ha delivered little is unfounded. Purpose of gamification is not to understand games of learning. It is generally used to engage people. I feel that this is being more prevalently used ( without being recognized) - it could be utilized more in peripheral communications and engagements with students in higher education - nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Sep 30, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016
Gamification has great potential, I believe, but it is difficult to plan and complicated. As many institutions now have instructional designers who help to design learning experiences, we need instructional designers who can help to design gamification into traditional class learning experiences. We also need learning management systems that enable gamification to be easily designed and included in classes to encourage high-quality participation and engagement in classes. Such gamification features should be part of the standard learning management system package and not cost extra to implement, in my humble opinion. - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016
Demographics should play a role here as well, with younger people generally having had more experience with games than their seniors, and also being more open about it. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 2, 2016
This topic would benefit, I think, from being subdivided into three distinct categories: gamification (extrinsic use of game-like motivators), gameful design (intrinsic game design thinking for the design of non-game tasks), and the use of games in learning. All three are connected, of course - but it is possible to use one with minimal reference to the other two.- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 2, 2016 Good idea, Ruben. Especially 1+3. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 3, 2016 - alexandra.pickett alexandra.pickett Oct 5, 2016
- alexandra.pickett alexandra.pickett Oct 5, 2016
Here is an excellent report on "Game-based Experiences for Learning" (Bober, 2010). The report is based on a solid lit review, expert interviews and game-based learning experiences. It helps to identify key design principles which allow for higher student engagement and motivation in the learning experience. - agermain agermain Oct 3, 2016
Transmedia learning experiences, mediated by a combination of virtual and augmented reality, motion sensors, haptics and real world tangible objects, could dramatically enhance student engagement and learning outcomes. In recent testings, the Learning Innovation Laboratory at the University of Chihuahua, Mexico, we have observed a boost in student enthusiasm and motivation when learning with technology (Linnea innovation laboratory). - fledezma fledezma Oct 6, 2016

Low Code Citizen Development Platforms
There is much functionality that is desired by administrators, faculty, and students that is missing from the traditional LMS. In particular, the rise of use of mobile platforms and their attending universe of apps, where there's always "an app for that" creates expectations about what can/should be available. However, traditional in-house development platforms and methodologies can be prohibitively expensive and take too long to develop and deploy. The latest generation of what have been called "low code citizen development" tools has the potential to change the cost/time equation, allowing for rapid development of small apps that can satisfy all but the most exotic needs. Some references: Paul Rubens, Use Low-Code Platforms to Develop the Apps Customers Want -; Jason Bloomberg, Citizen Developers: Low Code is now Enterprise Class - - rubenrp rubenrp Oct 2, 2016

Next-Generation LMS
There is a growing movement for online/hybrid pedagogy that is (a) based outside of the Learning Management System (LMS) or that (b) branches off-of the LMS (as an extension). This is in-part due to a growing negative perception of the LMS as an industrialized course production system, but also due to some inherent limitations of any online system. This has been explored in the past as a sort-of lego oriented approach to digital pedagogy, in which tools and systems can be combined in a number of ways. The trend continues with growing exploration of the ecosystem using open systems such as WordPress,, Slack, and etc. Many LMS vendors have successfully embraced the 'add-on' capacity of LTI, positioning them to serve as the course base-camp - but not holding anyone hostage. The progress of LMS LTI, movements such as a Domain of One's Own and Sandstorm ; and an anti-LMS culture continue to proliferate and guide us in interesting directions. Some might very simply call this open education, but there seems to be a growing anti-LMS culture and practice. - brad.hinson brad.hinson Sep 19, 2016- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 22, 2016- jantonio jantonio Sep 27, 2016 yes i've heard this a bit - we call it the 'bento box approach' , I cant get my head around how I'd do it amongst EVERYTHING else though Im open to suggestions
The "L" in the LMS is the most mysterious letter, as little learning really happens in the LMS. It is a necessary evil but in really is a tool for administrators. Most effective learning online happens in third party applications usually linked or housed within the LMS that provide opportunity for innovative activities and practices. LTI integrated apps or application that target specific areas are usually better developed and updated, compared to LMS platforms. The LMS continues to exist not because faculty adoption but because of fear to let them and students loose on the wild west of the web. Many institution are re-thinking the large investments made in the LMS but for data, storage and security reasons they remain in place. We are likely to see a lego-approach emerge in the next 5 years that will better address both personalized learning and emerging pedagogical methods - mayaig mayaig Sep 24, 2016 LMS also plays a major role in assessment of learning, especially when we think of formative assessment. - paulo.dantas paulo.dantas Oct 3, 2016
A good example of these methods and teaching philosophies were recently outlined by Adam Croom - Openness without Penalty - brad.hinson brad.hinson Sep 29, 2016
Let's see what happens with the NGDLE movement. They're trying to be more flexible, and could win institutions for another generation. Or they could fail, and campuses escape. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Sep 29, 2016
I liked the title "anti-LMS", I think a lot of students and academics do not like LMS - but I seriously do not see this being taken away- this is an administration system. Sure, learning can be on other platforms but I think LMS will continue to remain as the administrative IT Tool for education. - nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Sep 30, 2016 I have reservations regarding LMS, particularly the one that I've experienced (Blackboard, Moodle, etc) However, I recognize the need for universities to provide an online environment where students can submit work, and instructors can offer feedback and grades in a secure manner. The concept of an LMS solves a variety of problems, and I wholeheartedly agree that we're in need of a next-generation alternative. - matthew.worwood matthew.worwood Oct 6, 2016
Perhaps an extensible, open, next-generation LMS is what is needed. One that doesn't cost institutions hundreds of thousands of dollars each year and can easily be expanded to include learning analytics, adaptive learning, gamification, and other digital learning innovations. - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016
Next gen LMS should be device-agnostic, platform-agnostic and even institution-agnostic. An LMS capable of integrating learning experiences acquired from heterogeneous sources, in different moments and contexts; all summed up un a learning path that could even include informally acquired skills and competences. EduCause has an interesting article on LMS evolution. - fledezma fledezma Oct 6, 2016
I would like to repeat my plea for the reappearance of the personal learning environment which addresses precisely this (important) point! - M.vanWetering M.vanWetering Oct 2, 2016 [Editor's Note: Added here from RQ3 discussions.]

Combined with Existing RQ1 Developments in Technology

Augmented reality
Should we break out AR as a separate category, or is it entirely folded into Mixed Reality (MR)?
I'd suggest to change Augmented Reality instead of Mixed Reality - jreinoso jreinoso Sep 11, 2016
Yes, Augmented Reality should be on the list. MR should stay also. We continue to see application developed for AR. At some point in the future the terminology may change completely. In fact, recently Intel introduced Merged Reality for their version of interactive VR. - mayaig mayaig Sep 24, 2016 - lkoster lkoster Sep 30, 2016
I suggest that Augmented Reality should be its own category. We are seeing tools for the creation of augmented experiences being made easier to use. Pokeymon Go is an example of how engaging this technology can be. In the future we will be increasingly using this technology in classrooms, outside of classrooms, as a medium for student creation, as a medium for explanation and instruction, and as an industrial tool. We currently know little about good design with Augmented Reality, but someone will probably address this gap in our knowledge in the near future. - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016- deone.zell deone.zell Oct 2, 2016 Medium term, 2-3 years. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 3, 2016 Completely agree that this should be a separate category and I suspect it may, in fact, be one of the most significant items on our one-year horizon. Augmented Reality is one of the biggest and somehow under-noticed bits of technology consistently expanding within our learning landscapes,which is amazing given how many millions of people are having their first Augmented Reality experiences through Pokemon Go. I suspect Pokemon Go will be the (potentially unacknowledged) game-changer that pushes AR into mainstream education and many of aspects of contemporary life: by making people comfortable with how AR works and enticing them into a somewhat entertaining use of AR, it might make significantly larger numbers of learners and learning facilitators more open to using AR in learning. - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 3, 2016 Agreed. Some of us have been talking about this for years. Grumble grumble. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 3, 2016 - alexandra.pickett alexandra.pickett Oct 5, 2016 [Editor's Note: Combined with Existing RQ1 tech development Mixed Reality. Augmented reality and virtual reality were once separate on our list and expert panelists recently made the case to combine them. However, our research indicates much more traction with VR. Now we have also have Mixed Reality, which also covers AR.]

Deep and Machine Learning
Deep and Machine Learning is likely to help bring in innovations to teaching and learning. Smart Flower recognition system is an example. This reminds me of Genome matching databases etc that has been around for sometime. I feel innovations in technology with deep and machine learning would mean that there can be more novel applications, which allow students to say for instance, take a photo, research on information on that, communicate on that etc. Searches need not be restricted to texts. It could be by pictures, voices. - nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Sep 30, 2016. [Editor's Note: Adding to the discussions in existing overlapping RQ1 tech developments Affective Computing and Artificial Intelligence]

Micro Credentialing
I think the "badging" or idea of providing a credential for competencies gained is getting more traction in higher education. As we think about the future of higher education and block chain technologies, the micro credential , may be the building block to the future of higher education acknowledgement of achievement. (- rneuron rneuron Sep 27, 2016) (- rneuron rneuron Sep 27, 2016) (- rneuron rneuron Sep 27, 2016) (- rneuron rneuron Sep 27, 2016)
I agree that "badging" will gain popularity and increased use in the future. Before that happens, however, we may need to see the typical educational credential, the transcript, start offering micro-credentials. Currently, the smallest credential offered in higher education that one can see on a transcript is the "certificate". Certificates typically represent a structured three to five class sequence in an area of concentration. In the age of life-long learning, people will want to come back to school to learn a specific skill that may be equivalent to a portion of a traditional class, or possibly be equivalent to a traditional class in terms of length of experience. For this, a micro-credential could be added to one's transcript. A collection of micro-credentials could become a certificate. MOOCs would be great platforms for earning badges and collections of badges organized into a certificate. - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016 - alexandra.pickett alexandra.pickett Oct 5, 2016 [Editor's Note: Adding to existing RQ1 tech development Microlearning Technologies.]

Early College Experience (a new type of relationship between Higher Education and High School)
I struggled to find a place to add this topic, but I think one possible emerging trend in the years to come will be high education institutions reevaluating their relationship with nearby high schools, particularly public institutions. There appears to be tremendous pressure on colleges and universities to sustain an increase in the number of applicants to their institutions, and with cuts to funding this might only increase. Furthermore, closer relationships between higher education and high schools might assist freshmen in adapting to university life, and academic rigor. I serve as a coordinator on the UConn Early College Experience program, as I greatly value the opportunity to future students in my subject as part of the high school experience. Ultimately, I just think there's so much more that can be done between high schools and institutions of higher education - matthew.worwood matthew.worwood Oct 6, 2016
We've had an Early College at several of our campuses for years now in partnership with local school districts. Students graduate with a High School and Associate's Degree simultaneously. It complements our Dual Credit programs which take place in the schools that allows students to complete significant college credit, although not usually a Associate's, taking courses within their campuses or on ours during the summer. These courses are taught just like our college-level courses and students need to qualify into them by demonstrating college readiness in their sophomore years. We are also offering a 2+2 Engineering program with the University of Texas-Tyler that allows students to go on and complete BA on our campus in a number of engineering disciplines for less than $20K in tuition and fees. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 26, 2016

Combined with Existing RQ3 Trends

Learning Analytics
I was surprised to see this gone from the list of topics - others connect with it, but none cover the same range. I would strongly suggest bringing it back, together with the description/discussion from the previous Report: - rubenrp rubenrp Oct 2, 2016- alexandra.pickett alexandra.pickett Oct 5, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016 sure agree, this is definately still at the beginning I'd add 4. supporting students self efficacy and responsibility in learning - a form of electronic mentoring
3 areas
  1. Institutional: predict at risk students
  2. Program and course: engagement analytics: page views, contributions in discussion, student completed assignments, number of logins.
  3. Student: learner analytics: what have students mastered, struggled with, misconceptions about curriculum, what topics require more attention? [Editor's Note: Adding this to the existing discussion in RQ3 around "Growing Focus on Measuring Learning."]

Open Learning & Open Educational Resources (OER)
Students are increasingly reacting against high prices for textbooks and teaching material, and open educational resources are becoming (via the efforts of the Department of Education in the US, and funders such as Hewlett and Saylor) a central aspect of this conversation. As publishers begin to charge for other resources, including those used in assessment, we should expect a response from the well-established global open education movement and elsewhere. - dkernohan dkernohan Aug 30, 2016 - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Aug 30, 2016 - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Sep 11, 2016- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 26, 2016 , - rc_sharma rc_sharma Oct 2, 2016 , - lkoster lkoster Sep 30, 2016 - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 3, 2016 The key is to address quality in addition to cost-savings. Similar to publisher materials, I have found that open textbooks vary in quality, although the process for evaluating and reviewing open textbooks appears to be much more rigorous in general than publishers engage in. Publishers are already figuring out ways of monetizing this open environment---"double-dipping" when publishing articles in publishers' open access journals and charging all sorts of article publishing fees is one example. OER is increasing in popularity as a way to provide students with free or reduced cost textbooks. I think free and open textbooks will continue to gain traction. But OER repositories containing bits and pieces of learning objects such as graphics, animations, tests, and the like, seem to contain a great deal of low quality content. It can be difficult, if not impossible, to find open materials one can actually use in a course. So before OER goes beyond textbooks to make an impact with non-text resources, we need better curated repositories and initiatives to incentivize the creation and storage of high quality learning objects that can be easily searched and with resources that are actually usable. - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016 I agree. Quality assurance processes, levels of granularity to ease the use and repurposing of OER are issues still looking for solutions. - agermain agermain Oct 3, 2016There is however the issue of OER activity simply disappearing when the funding runs out - so, how to sustain OER? - nwitt nwitt Oct 2, 2016 - DaveP DaveP Oct 2, 2016 A great question. Will the answer be institutional subvention? Unlikely in the majority of cases, especially given austerity budgets.. Will governments? An open question.
How about corporate sponsorship? MIT is already trying this.
Foundations? They don't like to provide maintenance funding. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 3, 2016
How can OERs facilitate opportunities for faculty-student collaboration on knowledge generation? Ex: Palaces, Temples and Tombs in Mesopotamia i, a course at Johns Hopkins University taught by Prof. Marian Feldman.- mreese mreese Oct 4, 2016 opportunity for faculty to collaborate [Editor's Note: Great insights. Adding them to existing RQ3 trend "Proliferation of Open Educational Resources.]

Quality Metrics/Human-Scale Indicators
Big Data is so three years ago. I'm seeing a week signal around people looking for metrics that are more reliable and accurate than the "count all the things" mania of the early teens. Altmetrics have become a more nuanced proposition - in the UK "The Metric Tide" felt like a watershed moment on the insane research power metrics that kill academics - Jisc's Code of Practice for Learning Analytics would be another example. - dkernohan dkernohan Aug 15, 2016- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 26, 2016 mmm maybe its more about the 'so what factor' maybe its more about using learning ananlytics to directly support students achievements - self efficacy- rather than prediction and policing. Totally agree to the use learner analytics to support learners needs which is increasing within the VET sector rather than the use of academic analytics - yvette.drager yvette.drager Sep 29, 2016 Possibility of improved metrics visualisation using VR or similar - see Architecture of Radio app by Richard Vijgen - DaveP DaveP Oct 2, 2016 [Editor's Note: These are all great points. I'll be adding them to the existing discussion in RQ3 around "Growing Focus on Measuring Learning," which incorporates quality metrics, learning analytics, etc.]

Digital Assessment
Admittedly, I have suggested this on previous occasions, bit still I find it an important field: At my main academic area at Aarhus University, Denmark, all examns are now digital .The company that has developed WISE-flow and colleagues from my centre have started a research project with a Korean university and a Korean company that aims at avoiding plagiarism in all senses of the word. The technology has been a success and concepts like this should be spread to all universities. - ole ole Sep 11, 2016 2015-2016 140.000 exams have been completed digital assessment at Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, DK. - ole ole Sep 12, 2016 [Editor's Note: Adding this to the existing discussion in RQ3 around "Growing Focus on Measuring Learning."]

Flipped Classroom
What happened to this topics? Did I miss it? This is a concept that has been around for a while, so it it hardly emerging. However, there is quite a bit of activity in the very near future that is important. This is especially applicable in the higher ed space. The Flipped Classroom concept came from high school faculty and grew rapidly. The salient point for now is to identify creative ways that the concept is being applied in post secondary learning. For example, The University of Vermont College of Medicine just announced a plan to flip all of its lecture-based content, creating video that will be accessed by medical students on their own. The radically changes the role of the faculty to allow for more hands-on, experience-based, and team-based learning.U of Vermont #medicalschool to get rid of all lecture courses - Lawrence.Miller Lawrence.Miller Sep 26, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 26, 2016 reinvention I guess and possibly mainstreaming, still good to consider it, maybe its more about 'new models of learning' suitable for mobile/ blend - this is still emerging in the HE as we are seeing more faculty adopt it. However, it is just starting to become more well known. - lkoster lkoster Sep 30, 2016- deone.zell deone.zell Oct 2, 2016
Yes, the flipped classroom is currently emerging. Faculty are increasingly adopting it or are at least curious about it. But, like designing an online class, help is needed to plan and implement it well. - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016
Help indeed. Check out the size of that University of Vermont grant: $66 million.
On the other hand, what happens if universities and colleges decide to tell adjuncts to flip their classes? They're the largest body of faculty in the US, have zero academic freedom, and every incentive to follow directives. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 2, 2016- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 2, 2016 [Editor's Note: This discussion is being moved to existing RQ3 Trend "Blended Learning Designs."]

Added as New Trends to RQ3 Trends

EdTech Accelerators and Incubators
EdTech accelerators and incubators are popping up across universities and tech giants with the purposeful goal to develop applications for education. From Inter, Microsoft to NYU and ASU startups are invited on campus and at major tech conferences to develop and pitch new innovative EdTech solutions for education - mayaig mayaig Sep 24, 2016 [Editor's Note: This is great but reads more like a trend, therefore it is being added to RQ3 Trends.]

Rise of Instructional Design and Instructional Design Assistance
As the use of digital learning technologies become more prominent in higher education, and as the quantity and scrutiny of the quality of online courses and programs are increasing, instructional designers are becoming a necessary resource on campuses. Faculty don't have the time to keep up with the developments in digital learning technologies and usually don't have the knowledge of learning design necessary to design classes using Universal Design Principles or that must meet standards such as Quality Matters. - alexandra.pickett alexandra.pickett Oct 5, 2016 and openly licensed rubrics like SUNY's OSCQR. It seems likely that the field of instructional design will become more popular and increasingly important in higher education. Instructional designers will not only help with the mundane work of designing face-to-face classes and online classes, but will increasingly specialize in topics like flipped classroom design, online learning design, virtual and augmented learning design, gamification design, personalized learning design, adaptive learning design, and so on. While not a technology, I believe that instructional designers are a critical necessity in the age of digital learning and innovation in digital learning. Therefore, I would like to assert that Instructional Design and Instructional Design Assistance is a currently emerging trend in higher education, and one that will grown in importance and complexity. - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016 - alexandra.pickett alexandra.pickett Oct 5, 2016 i couldn't agree more about the emerging professionalization and speciallization of the role of instructional design and the instructional designer in higher ed. I was the first online instructional designer in SUNY in 1994, have trained over 400 online instructional designers since, and have witnessed first hand the specialization mentioned. Here are a couple of cool historical documents: you will see in this illustration that the ID (instructional designer is central to the online faculty development and course design process. Here is an historical description of the role: While I completely agree in the need for quality standards and reviews at the course and instructional levels, as well as the need for faculty development support and professional development - course quality and effective online faculty alone cannot ensure high quality in online programs. We have created an institutional readiness program to onboard campuses into online education using the OLC Quality Scorecard. The OLC quality score card identifies 9 categories essential for online program quality including course and faculty supports. [Editor's Note: Awesome insight but reads more like a trend, therefore it is being added to RQ3 Trends.]

Low Code Citizen Development Platforms
There is much functionality that is desired by administrators, faculty, and students that is missing from the traditional LMS. In particular, the rise of use of mobile platforms and their attending universe of apps, where there's always "an app for that" creates expectations about what can/should be available. However, traditional in-house development platforms and methodologies can be prohibitively expen

Combined with Existing RQ4 Challenges

Computational Thinking
The role of the computational thinking thought process is heightened as we embrace many of the trends we are currently discussing in this Horizon Report. For instance, machine learning and artificial learning abound in the headlines and have opened up the dialogue on ethical, political, philosophical, and technical issues we must consider as we mine the data we are gathering at the academy and as autonomous cars are designed to make the “best” life and death decisions. These are only a couple of examples society is facing in solving some of the most wicked problems humanity has encountered. Also computational thinking provides a foundational impact as we envision and design the future virtual assistants helping our learners as well as untangle the emotional aspects of affective computing in facilitating a learning experience. - francisca francisca Oct 2, 2016- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 4, 2016 Computational thinking benefits society by Jeannette Wing - __ - francisca francisca Oct 2, 2016 [Editor's Note: Adding this to the Challenges discussion of "Teaching Complex Thinking" which expressly explores computational thinking as well.]

Other Key Insights

Cloud Computing and Security
Everything seems to be on the cloud now. This raises big concerns on data security, and hence this will be an important topic in the near future. This may not have been addressed yet. - nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Sep 9, 2016 Good input to the discussion. - ole ole Sep 11, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 26, 2016 - lkoster lkoster Sep 30, 2016 [Editor's Note: Cloud Computing, after being featured on the near-term horizon for several years, has been retired from the Horizon Project as it has thankfully become very commonplace]

Consumer Devices and Educational Technologies Intersect
Consumer technologies are creating expectations for ed tech, broadcast of chromecast or amazon fire TV or advanced gaming technologies are now commonplace in the home but are challenging to scale for educational use. The personal use of technology is outstripping educational practice and our solutions are currently underwhelming - DaveP DaveP Oct 2, 2016

Information search and Knowledge Management
Trends in use of resources has changed over the years and will continue to change. Topics such as these may be overlooked as we only consider the more obvious technologies. Technologies on information search and knowledge management is likely to change in the coming years. Library systems of the present day search articles by keywords, time and such parameters. The future systems are likely to mine through the article and pick out articles that are related and clustered together etc, making literature searches easier. Robot Writers, Open Education and the Future of Ed Tech
- nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Sep 9, 2016 The library at Aarhus University, Denmark, works intensively within this field - ole ole Sep 11, 2016 [Editor's Note: I think this discussion belongs in many different areas of the Horizon Project as research technologies are enabling better access to information.]