Research Question 4: Significant Challenges Impeding Technology Adoption in Higher Education

What do you see as the significant challenges that higher education will face during the next five years?

INSTRUCTIONS: Enter your responses to the questions below. This is most easily done by moving your cursor to the end of the last item and pressing RETURN to create a new bullet point. Please include URLs whenever you can (full URLs will automatically be turned into hyperlinks; please type them out rather than using the linking tools in the toolbar).

NOTE: The Significant Challenges are sorted into three difficulty related categories based on their appearance in previous Horizon Report editions -- solvable challenges are those that we both understand and know how to solve, but seemingly lack the will; difficult challenges are ones that are more or less well-understood but for which solutions remain elusive; wicked challenges, the most difficult, are complex to even define, and thus require additional data and insights before solutions will even be possible. In your responses to the trends below, feel free to explore why or why not the challenge should be in its specific category.

As you review what others have written, please add your thoughts and comments as well.

Please "sign" each of your contributions by marking with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples- this produces a signature when the page is updated, like this: - gordon gordon Jul 21, 2016


Compose your entries like this:

Challenge Name
Add your ideas here, with few sentences of description including full URLs for references (e.g. http://horizon.nmc.org). And do not forget to sign your contribution with 4 ~ (tilde) characters!


Achievement Gap
The achievement gap refers to an observed disparity in academic performance between student groups, especially as defined by socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, or gender. Environmental factors such as peer pressure, student tracking, negative stereotyping, and test bias are exacerbating this challenge. Schools use various success standards to define learning expectations, including grades, standardized test scores, and completion rates, leading to comparison of student performance at the individual and group level. Adaptive and personalized learning technologies are beginning to play a more integral role in identifying lower performing students and student populations, helping educators and leaders understand contributing factors, and enabling and scaling targeted intervention methods and engagement strategies that help close the gap. Global concerted action will be necessary, however, to address ongoing obstacles to education for children in countries experiencing civil unrest, as well as cultural barriers depriving females’ access to school. - Sam Sam Oct 6, 2016

Advancing Digital Equity
Digital equity refers to uneven access to high-speed broadband, a rampant social justice issue that is not just impacting developing nations. Pew Research reports that five million households in the US with school-aged children are not privy to high-speed service. While more schools are benefiting from improved internet connectivity, the growing pervasiveness of blended learning approaches is illuminating new gaps between those with and without high-speed broadband; especially in countries that emphasize homework, students are increasingly expected to engage in learning activities outside of the classroom. For students from economically disadvantaged households, the availability of broadband and sufficient computing devices is not a given. This facet of digital equity is also referred to as the Homework Gap, and solving this challenge will take concerted efforts between policymakers and education leaders. In the US, President Obama recently announced the ConnectALL initiative, which promises high-speed broadband and technology access for every American. Further, internet and technology providers such as Google are enabling greater access in low-income areas by providing entire cities with gigabit fiber connectivity. - Sam Sam Oct 6, 2016

Balancing our Connected and Unconnected Lives
With technology now at the center of many daily activities, higher education institutions must help learners understand how to balance their usage with other developmental needs. To prevent students from getting lost in the abundant sea of information and new media, universities and colleges should encourage mindful use of digital tools while making them aware of their digital footprint and the accompanying implications. As education aligns closer with technological trends, instructors will have to promote this balance, facilitating opportunities where students feel, digest, reflect, touch, and pursue sensorial experiences that are crucial to developing character and integrity. Striking a balance and guiding learners to personal success in their own habits is especially critical for incoming generations of students that have come to rely on technology. While there are plenty of studies and articles discussing healthy amounts of screen time for children, there are no prescribed or agreed upon models for adults when it comes to learning. Furthermore, institutions have a responsibility to ensure that when students are connected it is with the purpose of transformation — not just replicating an experience that could easily take place without technology. - kevin_ashford_rowe kevin_ashford_rowe Aug 15, 2016- kumiko.aoki kumiko.aoki Sep 20, 2016 - ole ole Sep 20, 2016- n.wright n.wright Sep 21, 2016- jantonio jantonio Sep 28, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 21, 2016- agermain agermain Sep 30, 2016 - lkoster lkoster Sep 30, 2016 - Jean-Pierre.Berthet Jean-Pierre.Berthet Sep 30, 2016- rc_sharma rc_sharma Oct 2, 2016 - paulo.dantas paulo.dantas Oct 3, 2016
how about studies on the incredible impact of mobile technologies on life- we could then explore fully mobile learning opportunities, ie beyond 'balance' to constructive integration , do you see what I mean? I've been looking for these but nothing much yet (plenty of 'opinion, most of it uninformed ). - DaveP DaveP Oct 2, 2016- anthony.helm anthony.helm Oct 2, 2016 - fledezma fledezma Oct 5, 2016At the risk of adding to the list of uninformed opinion, I recently spent a week living aboard a boat, with no electricity, no wifi and no phone signal. After the initial panic was over (around two days) my wife and I both enjoyed the peace and serenity of NOT being connected to work and the rest of the world by our army of portable devices, and found the experience most relaxing and rewarding. When I returned to the UK I deleted all of the online games that had taken up so much of my "free" time, and my creative output (music) has increased exponentially. Offline time is vitally important, all too rare, and not yet fully researched and understood. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016 I very much agree with this comment. The question is how do we facilitate life balance in higher education. I think that specialization will become the wave of the future. Those who are excellent teachers who wish to primarily teach should be able to do so, and be as valued as those who conduct research. I believe that over time, specialization will increase and there will be fewer and fewer generalists in higher education. I believe this will enable greater balance in our lives, and allow us to connect to the important instead of to the quantity of what is the norm today. - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016 Not to sound ageist, but I think it is difficult to appreciate "balance" in one's life, much less teach it, at the average age of HE students, though that doesn't mean we should not try. Of course, it does help living and working in an area (Vermont) where it is very easy to fall off the grid just by driving a short distance.- anthony.helm anthony.helm Oct 2, 2016 Using Damian's comment as a jumping off point, I'm not only agreeing that this is a key challenge, but one that we need to explore with our learners on a long-term basis. A "digital fast" experiment I heard about a few years ago led me to try to do digital or social-media fasts for at least 24 hours at least once a month, and I find them very productive. Actually wrote a set of reflections on the topic:https://buildingcreativebridges.wordpress.com/2012/07/20/social-media-feast-and-fast-disconnecting-for-a-day/ - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 5, 2016Look for this as a driver of maker spaces. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Sep 9, 2016 - helga helga Sep 19, 2016- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 2, 2016 Involve the libraries - ole ole Sep 20, 2016 When I think of this topic there are a few key elements that come to mind (1) Digital citizenship & identity (2) Critical digital literacy (3) Professional learning and (4) Digital support networks *care/trust/compassion/friendships. See the work of Bonnie Stewart and others:
http://theory.cribchronicles.com/
- whitneykilgore whitneykilgore Sep 26, 2016 - DaveP DaveP Oct 2, 2016
This also relates to the impact of technology not just on our social lives, but also health matters, such as eyesight, and obesity. Another aspect is the impact of students' studying skills. Students seem to be reading lesser of the long texts now, and lessons are going online as videos. While embracing technology is important, I think we need to also need to think about the impact and take reasonable measures so that use of technology in teaching and learning is impactful and sustainable, in a positive way. Tech industries should also contribute to this by engaging in research studies that contributes to social responsibility in the use of technology in higher education. - nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Sep 30, 2016 - lkoster lkoster Sep 30, 2016Strongly suggest referencing MT's Sherry Turkle's latest (2015) book, Reclaiming Conversation: The Power of Talk in a Digital Age;https://www.amazon.com/Reclaiming-Conversation-Power-Talk-Digital/dp/1594205558
and see NY Times article/reviewhttp://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/04/books/review/jonathan-franzen-reviews-sherry-turkle-reclaiming-conversation.html?_r=0.
She has many examples of both research, as well as practices she and other faculty at both MIT and other universities
have established to limit (sometimes eliminate) smart phone texting and laptop interactions during classes, as well impact of constant access during everyday life. We will see more powerful and digitally connected capture and sharing technologies, which may well reduce some forms of cognitive overload in learning, but which also have longer-term side effects which need more serious research and thought.- ted ted Oct 1, 2016
I would like to strongly support this view on the balance question. Sherry Turkle's work very clearly shows why and how we need to intervene to balance the digital and 'human' connected life.- M.vanWetering M.vanWetering Oct 2, 2016
I have been asked several times to lead discussions on how technology changes outcomes. Each time I lead a discussion it is different because new technologies and ideas have come up, such as as has been suggested in our work. While working on this project I have thought more about it and wondered where the right place to insert my thoughts on this was going to be. I think its here. Right now, today... I believe a majority of individuals, teachers, and professionals behave as if the technology changes the outcome. If we look closely that is not what happens, outcomes change because we use technology. If some how we can get to a point where we use the technology as a tool then it can be used by faculty to change the outcomes they expect in a classroom. Not because the technology does the changing, but because as a tool it enables the teacher, and the student to achieve higher levels of comprehension, and increased levels of practice, and a better knowing that any one faculty or group of faculty can do in a learning environment. That is how technology changes outcomes. The use of the tools allows us to advance our thinking, improve efficiency, and hopefully allows us more free time, rather than less. My answer each time I am asked the question is yes because of technology we can advance and make more complex the outcomes and competencies we expect of our learners, but technology does not change outcomes in my humble opinion. (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)- anthony.helm anthony.helm Oct 2, 2016 - paulo.dantas paulo.dantas Oct 3, 2016In a sense, there is a challenge within a challenge here: the mental model that many (most?) faculty have of what that "connected life" looks like. For instance, the picture that the Pew Research report on Smartphone Use (2015) paints - http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/01/us-smartphone-use-in-2015/ - is very different from what I have heard both advocates and detractors assume about the uses of the technology.- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 2, 2016On the one hand we have Generation Z, connected since birth, http://www.jbchicago.com/generation-z-connected-from-birth/, and faculty who are aware of and concerned about students needing to develop deep attention outside of technology use, but still feeling hesitant in the face of the tyranny of technology. That is, they need encouragement and models for how they can help students manage this balance.- rebeccad rebeccad Oct 2, 2016It is undeniable that mobile devices will give students and teachers new powers to potentiate the outcomes in most of their learning experiences, however, and looking at it from a more IT perspective, it seems like people coming from an education background are not even imagining the huge challenge that it is posing, in terms of network administration and computer security. - fledezma fledezma Oct 6, 2016
This is a huge challenge for both teachers and students primarily because our connected life tends to interfere with our unconnected life. In HE, the challenge of persistence is huge. The problems we need to solve today are so much larger than problems that needed to be solved prior to this. Humans have created solutions to ever larger challenges throughout time. Fire was harnessed for the benefit of humankind. The printing press made communication to greater numbers of people possible and allowed for new forms of education that we still use today. The renaissance brought about changes in perception that allowed the pursuit of knowledge to become a primary goal rather than simply learning what had to be learned to subsist. The industrial revolution provided for the shift from an agrarian society to one in which manufacturing became the linchpin to economic growth. Technology brought about changes that allowed for the mass destruction and construction of everything we now hold dear. And, the one thread that runs common to all of these is persistence.
Students, and faculty, now can find information on any topic at any time. They can “fact check” comments made by elected officials and candidates. They can become “experts” in areas of knowledge simply through the use of their hand-held devices. Yet, that information is often meaningless in the long-term development of the individual. The instant gratification one gets from knowing the square root of a twelve-digit number is worthless when the challenge we face is how to help the residents of a country devastated by a Hurricane or other natural disaster. The instantaneous knowledge that a tsunami is approaching a heavily populated region is knowledge that has value but only if we have developed mechanisms to evacuate or protect those in danger.
HE needs to help students learn to persist in their individual pursuit of solutions. We need to acknowledge the huge potential of technology to provide data and we need to teach our students how to turn that data into knowledge. If we assume that pre-college education provides a foundation upon which we can build, HE needs to use the easily acquired data to create solutions to the ever larger problems we face. HE has the potential to prepare students to solve ever larger problems but only if we can teach students that instantaneous gratification is not the means to the end. And, most importantly, we need to teach our students how they can do this collaboratively.
We are all connected to so many people in our lives. The instant communication afforded by technology has made it so we never need to lose touch with family and friends…how can we extend that to colleagues and coworkers? How can we help our students see that the same tool they use to plan a night out can also solve a complex chemistry problem? How can teachers develop the fortitude to allow their student to pursue multiple different challenges simultaneously? How can we help teachers see that their role is not the Sage on the Stage but the Guide on the Side? We as teachers do not know the answers to many of the challenges we face. Yet, teachers have developed a set of tools that allows us to work towards a solution that meets the goals we define. How can we pass those skills on to our students?
Many may see these issues are technological literacy and ethical use of knowledge. Perhaps that is true and that becomes the foundation upon which teachers need to build.
I believe, the single greatest challenge teachers face is the realization that we do not know the answers and that we should not know the answers. Rather, we know how to find or collect data, we know how to validate that data and we know ways to apply that data to make it knowledge. Higher Education needs to focus on developing these skills in every area. That means, learning when to be connected and when to disconnect.
Several previous authors of comments have made reference to the work of Sherry Turkle and I wholeheartedly support a critical reading of her work. Her observations of millennial’s use of technology is eye-opening for those of us raised in an earlier day. While we may “know” about the things Sherry writes about in her two most recent books: Alone Together, Basic Books (2011). ISBN 978-0-465-01021-9 and Reclaiming Conversation: The Power of Talk in a Digital Age, Penguin Press (2015). ISBN 978-1-594-20555-2, it is important that all of us over the age of thirty (I think there is a quote from the Graduate that goes here) should make the time to read these. Or, at a minimum, listen to her TED talk.
In an earlier book (The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit (1984). ISBN 0-262-70111-1), Turkle makes the observation that “computers are both a part of our selves as well as part of the external world.” This comment, made over thirty years ago, appears to have flown by many teachers. Why are we still trying to mandate the use of non-use of technology in our classrooms. We all need to determine how to best accomplish the objectives in our courses using whatever tools are appropriate.
One commenter discussed how technology does NOT dictate the outcomes of the courses we teach. This is huge! Technology does not shape the outcomes of the course but will shape the activities we can perform in pursuit of those outcomes. I think we need to go a bit further and acknowledge that some outcomes are best accomplished without technology….though the number of these is declining exponentially and this is a solvable challenge. [Mike Kenney]


Blending Formal and Informal Learning
Traditional approaches to teaching and learning with roots in the 18th century and earlier are still very common in many institutions, and often stifle learning as much as they foster it. As the Internet has brought the ability to learn something about almost anything at the palm of one’s hand, there is an increasing interest in the kinds of self-directed, curiosity-based learning that have long been common in museums, science centers, and personal learning networks. These, along with life experience and other more serendipitous forms of learning fall under the banner of informal learning, and serve to enhance student engagement by encouraging them to follow their own learning pathways and interests. Many experts believe that a blending of formal and informal methods of teaching and learning can create an education environment that fosters experimentation, curiosity, and above all, creativity. In this sense, an overarching goal is to cultivate the pursuit of lifelong learning in all students and educators.
However, formally acknowledging and rewarding skills both educators and students master outside of the classroom is compounding this challenge. Key to this challenge is assessment and certification of knowledge and skills. Credit for recognized learning is likely to include new 'micro-credentials' signified by badges and similar awards which become 'stackable credentials' for flexible packaging by learners to represent what they know and can do. Creative partnerships in learning will be required to build the needed bridges between formal and informal learning providers. - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Aug 9, 2016 - kevin_ashford_rowe kevin_ashford_rowe Aug 15, 2016- jantonio jantonio Sep 28, 2016 - bsmith bsmith Sep 30, 2016 - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 5, 2016 This could be a trend rather than a challenge.- kumiko.aoki kumiko.aoki Sep 20, 2016 Surely you also need to consider also teaching both staff and students about digital citizenship to ensure (if you are assessing informal learning somehow) that they have a solid basic knowledge of how to be a responsible digital citizen and how to utilize a digital personal learning network to enhance their learning, this is crucial both in VET and HEd - yvette.drager yvette.drager Sep 29, 2016 The growing trend of micro-credentials to complement a more formal education pushes institutions to also introduce in their formal courses other pedagogical approaches based on well defined learning outcomes and competency-based pedagogy. This blending of formal and informal learning has a positive impact on the pedagogical reflection of many institutions.- agermain agermain Sep 30, 2016(- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)Agree that assessment and certification of knowledge and skills can be tricky in blending formal and informal learning- as is often seen in capstone/project based modules. While the idea of badges and online certificates are relevant, the ground reality is that these may not be recognized. At least from the Asian perspective, I feel that universities are still into accreditation, and this requires certain standard criteria, which may not accept the novel forms of recognition. Also the industries that employ students may not be open to these sort of certification/award recognition, which impacts the graduate employability, which in turn means that universities may not use these types of recognition. This in my view is a bottle neck. The alternative to this situation is probably for academics and support staff to derive relevant assessment measures - nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Sep 30, 2016.I disagree, and believe that industry has more quickly recognized the informal learning and the micro credentialing. Many organizations support both financially and time wise the opportunity for their employees to earn credentials in specialized area. The "industries" have come to expect their staff to have life long learning, to gain certificates in specialized areas, and in some cases have had to create their own certification programs. Higher Education has been against it because leaders and faculty have said that learning can only be recognized by a degree from a higher education institution. Now the community including departments of education have thrown down the gauntlet to the leaders and faculty and said make this work, accept that there is informal learning. The ACPE accrediting body for pharmacy now requires that co-curricular (informal) learning be monitored, required, and assessed. At this point, no one knows what that means, but its not the first time and it wont be the last. (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)I take your point about traditional teaching methods, but surely they go back way further than that, certainly to the ancient Greeks and, almost certainly back to early man? I am sure hunting 101 was on the curriculum for the ancient cave dwellers, along with majors in fire making and minors in cave painting... Having said that, the adherence to traditional methods, with academics often teaching the way they themselves were taught, means that adoption of new paradigms is limited to those with the bravery to try, and indeed sometimes fail, to do something different in the classroom. The stakes are high - getting it wrong can mean a drop in the student satisfaction ratings and/or results, and all that implies. The constant data. scrutiny added to increasing student numbers and staff workloads means it is always an uphill struggle to move things forwards. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016(- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)We have long known (with substantial research in both workplace, K-12/higher ed, and other settings) that more than 75% of applied learning (which may be defined as learning which contributes to some form of value creation) is situated in everyday social interactions (see books by John Seely Brown & Paul Duguid, The Social Life of Information, Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown A New Culture of Learning, and Etienne Wenger & Richard MacDermott, Cultivating Communities of Practice, as well as many former former staff members of the Institute for Research on Learning (IRL):<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institute_for_Research_on_Learning>. The challenges here include first recognizing that it's in the informal sphere where not only most of this learning is taking place, but also, where it's demonstrated in practice. This leads to a major challenge for how colleges and universities can (should?) move toward a more blended model of alignment of helping students develop competencies and skills that can be recognized outside of formal classroom situations, but while also giving them a broader view of how different fields of knowledge emerge, diverge and evolve. A related challenge (also addressed by Thomas and Brown's book, as well as many others) is how to focus on development of multiple kinds of thinking, and how to flexibly be able to shift between and among these (critical, creative, design thinking, as well as both historical and futures thinking).- ted ted Oct 1, 2016 The last sentence about flexibility and kinds of thinking is where our goals should be aimed. Knowledge is no longer the realm of Higher Ed. (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016) Creating new knowledge may be, but good old fashioned 2 +2 is found everywhere you look. (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)
We absolutely need to do more as education community to better link informal and formal learning. I think this is part of the education landscape being "disrupted" and it is important to recognize the role informal learning can play in ideas such as life-long learning and blockchain - mayaig mayaig Oct 2, 2016
Strongly agree! We separate learning within the gates of the institution of that outside knowing full well that most learning happens 'in real life'. It is complicated to combine them but we can no longer deny this situations now that very powerful learning platforms and materials are available outside of education institutions. In the Netherlands several educational companies directly offer their products to parents bypassing schools. - M.vanWetering M.vanWetering Oct 2, 2016Microcredentials are definitely a trend and I'm sure we'll soon have to think of ways of awarding badges to learners who did not study formally but have acquired certain skills. In the IT industry this has been a reality for ages (Microsoft and Cisco have certification programs, which are widely recognized by employers; no formal learning is usually required for these credentials as long as you pass the exam). The same goes for many Bar Associations: if you have the skills, and if you can pass the examination, you should be recognized as a lawyer. We currently do not have central organisations that offer credentials in a variety of areas (UX Expert and Social Media Behaviour Analysis, for instance) and this need is likely to appear, as much as it might disrupt HigherEd current business models. - paulo.dantas paulo.dantas Oct 3, 2016As more and more of us immerse ourselves in a combination of lifelong formal and informal learning, this challenge remains one well worth exploring and docmenting with a keen eye toward finding even more effective ways than we already have to seek places that offer, combine, and nurture formal and informal learning opportunities in every learning environment.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 5, 2016- tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 31, 2016

This is an area near and dear to my heart and is something I have devoted my entire career to pursuing. In a nutshell, I believe that learning happens constantly. There should be no distinction between formal and informal learning. Yet, society has dictated that learning is a formal activity that must be controlled by governmental mechanisms. That is our culture so we need to accept it or work to change it. I opt to pursue the latter.
It is often said that we are all born scientists. Infants are constantly experimenting. They put things in their mouth that adults would consider bad. They touch things to explore what they are. They learn to walk because they try something they have no experience with. They learn to speak by mimicking those around them. Babies are not encumbered by the rules we create in our formal educational venues.
We in HE need to develop a scientific approach to learning all subjects. We need to allow our students to try things simply for the sake of experience. We need to give them opportunities to fail and to do so without significant cost to the individual. Most importantly, we need to teach our students to constantly assess the success of the activity and determine whether it is or is not leading to a goal.
Technology can help and microcredentials may be one way to do this. However, the current paradigm does not value these microcredentials. Rather, the current “coin of the realm” is either a degree from an accredited institution of higher learning or demonstrated results that increases the monetary value of an individual or an organization. Neither Bill Gates nor Steven Jobs completed the formal degree yet both created significant value both personally and professionally. Microcredentials will not add significant monetary value to any individual or any organization. They are simply more things to hang on our wall, whether real or virtual.
Microcredentials are, in my opinion, no different than participation trophies we give to every member of the team no matter how much or how little the individual contributes. Microcredentials may provide instant gratification for an individual but will not teach the persistence needed for an individual to be successful. Bill Gates and Steven Jobs may not have completed a formal degree program but they did possess a single minded pursuit of a goal that required sustained prolonged effort. That is the true measure of success and one that HE can help to instill by incorporating knowledge achievement wherever it may be found. [Mike Kenney]


As we go about developing the programmatic framework around the West Houston Institute a thought has struck me that is very much in keeping with Mike Kenney's comment: There is an inherent tension between flexibility and legitimacy that is baked into the higher education system. Many of our "blended" learning solutions are being conceived initially as Continuing Education solutions but these will generally have much less cache than a traditional academic degree. At the same time the Design Thinking, Problem-solving, and entrepreneurial skills are precisely what we're hearing that employers want and what we see time and time again in successful entrepreneurs (including Gates and Jobs). Teaching these skills will require a high degree of flexibility. We are already running into questions about getting these programs properly vetted from state boards and accreditation agencies. If successful, this approach will hopefully create more flexible mechanisms within those agencies conferring legitimacy and I hope make them more flexible. Until that time, we're going to have to be create in how we navigate this challenge. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 31, 2016
Competing Models of Education
New models of education are bringing unprecedented competition to schools, especially for students whose needs are not being well served by the current system. Charter and online schools have particularly gained traction in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. According to the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, there are more than 6,000 charter schools in the US alone with more than 1.9 million students enrolled, compared to over 98,000 public schools where 49.4 million students are enrolled. Most US states also offer and encourage enrollment in online courses, and some states are requiring students complete them in order to graduate. Adding to this challenge is the fact that many students do not formally attend either type of school; the National Center for Education Statistic reports that nearly 3% of the school-age population was home schooled during the 2010-11 school year. Ninety-one percent of the parents of these children cited concern over the environments of tradition and charter schools when asked about their choice. For school leaders and policy makers, the challenge is to meet such competition head on, offering high-quality alternatives to students who need them. As new platforms emerge, there is a growing need to frankly evaluate models and determine how to best support collaboration, interaction, deep learning experiences, and assessment at scale.- kevin_ashford_rowe kevin_ashford_rowe Aug 15, 2016 - ole ole Sep 20, 2016
I just did a keynote address for TAFE NSW (College of Training and Further Education, New South Wales, Australia) in many ways our Community College equivalent. This topic had a great resonance with the, in excess of, 300 teachers that were present- kevin_ashford_rowe kevin_ashford_rowe Sep 17, 2016- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 22, 2016 I guess this is about more about competition and new business models between providers than competing models of education viz learning and teaching? ? if about providers- yes, in Australia for example huge interest in public: private, none of it going anywhere much.The province of Ontario created and funded the Ontario Online Learning Consortium (OOLC), a non-for-profit corporation regrouping all publicly funded colleges and universities in Ontario. Then in 2015, within the OOLC, eCampus Ontario was created and funded by the Province: a portal with online credited courses developed by all Ontario universities and colleges, to allow more accessibility and flexibility for students across Ontario. Which means that students can now select online courses from different universities and transfer easily the credits to their degree. This initiative is growing, the Province funding more and more development of online courses and of open source teaching and learning materials in the hope of offering to students more options and more flexibility in their education plan. This changes, of course, the nature of what higher ed programs used to be, allowing students to create combinations of courses for more interdisciplinary degrees, to answer a diversity of needs. This opening and flexibility s a positive direction.- agermain agermain Sep 30, 2016 - lkoster lkoster Sep 30, 2016In higher education, competing models include MOOCs, game-based learning platforms and the inclusion of new roles for artificial intelligence in providing feedback and support for learning. For example, the edX Consortium, with over 100 of the top universities in the world, currently serves over 9 million people worldwide, is creating 'Micromasters' in fields such as educational technology and other topics (e.g. MIT and Curtin University are discussing). These new models of education will allow lower cost delivery and greater flexibilty of advanced degree pathways to very large numbers of people. The larger 'Open edX' platform is on track to serve over 18 million people in China . The Arizona State University free MOOC-based Freshman Year is another example of the disruptive potential of MOOCs.alone. - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Aug 9, 2016- kumiko.aoki kumiko.aoki Sep 20, 2016 - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016 Agree, the students I have informally surveyed regarding awareness of MOOcs tells me that they are still unaware of their existence and possibilities- bsmith bsmith Sep 30, 2016- kevin_ashford_rowe kevin_ashford_rowe Aug 18, 2016 the issue that underlies this, for me anyway...is that of the role and the value of the 'degree' as the credential recognised within the market. Will its increased 'availability' degrade its value in the market? Will the likely disaggregation of it (eg. micro credentials, likely supported by different modes of education) make it a less coherent credential that speaks to a body of achievement? What do we think about this?Good question. So far it seems like a thicker certificate. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Sep 9, 2016 - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Sep 11, 2016- jantonio jantonio Sep 28, 2016 - helga helga Sep 19, 2016 I think Bryan is right. The problem here in Europe right now is that neither the 'market' nor the HE institutions are interested. It's a very open field and the quality assurance is not secured, the argument goes - justly, to a certain degree.- ole ole Sep 20, 2016 I agree - quality must always be at the forefront of our minds. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016 The issue I raise to your thoughts here are that having to watch my child and others struggle through a system to achieve what some would calla quality education, but have the most incompetent and immoral professors makes it hard for me to continue to say that Higher Education in its current model is about quality, or knowledge. I put these thoughts out there more as a devils advocate voice so as we write this Horizons report that it doesn't appear as if we are the "stuffy" higher ed people who only think that one way is right or that we have figured out all the answers in the current model which as you say is thousands of years old. (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)Competing models from the corporate world. LinkedIn just integrated its sprawling social network (how many of us on this board are members, eh?) with its recently acquired Lynda.com curriculum. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Sep 26, 2016Companies like General Assembly and Udacity are offering competitive models for students onsite in cities and online to students across different age and generations groups. Competitively priced they continue to expand their offerings into areas beyond tech topics. Recently they have begun to work with HigherEd and companies to bring courses/programs to campus or the work place.- mayaig mayaig Sep 28, 2016 (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)
I believe having competing models is a very healthy exercise and a live demonstration of the scientific method. As educators and technologists we are trying new things - trying to improve. Iterative experimentation and a sense of competition are healthy IMHO. Yes this threatens the monopoly but I believe this is good for all. It spurs those of us in traditional institutions to reflect, adapt, and consider alternatives. I'm hesitant to approach this topic in a negative light as I think it's healthy for our ecosystem. There is room for alternative certification and educational pathways. The more diversity, the better. I am pleased to see a diversification of the education landscape and to see students given more option and opportunity. I am pleased to see a resurgence of apprenticeships, workforce development, and trade schools. I dig code academies and the like. I think our greatest challenge lies within. Institutional status-quo is our greatest barrier. - brad.hinson brad.hinson Sep 29, 2016(- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)
Creating Authentic Learning Opportunities
Authentic learning, especially that which brings real life experiences into the classroom, is still all too uncommon in schools. Authentic learning is seen as an important pedagogical strategy, with great potential to increase the engagement of students who are seeking some connection between the world as they know it exists outside of school, and their experiences in school that are meant to prepare them for that world. Use of learning strategies that incorporate real life experiences, technology, and tools that are already familiar to students, and interactions from community members are examples of approaches that can bring authentic learning into the classroom. Practices such as these may help retain students in school and prepare them for further education, careers, and citizenship in a way that traditional practices are too often failing to do. I believe that the increased uptake of authentic learning (and assessment) underpinned by an alignment to 'competency based learning (and training)' has the potential to provide a strong pedagogical framework to guide us through the challenges I believe that we will face and are facing. - kevin_ashford_rowe kevin_ashford_rowe Aug 9, 2016 - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Sep 11, 2016- yvette.drager yvette.drager Sep 29, 2016 - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016 Agreed but also add the importance of vetting for project appropriateness (level of performance) and suitability towards achieving learning outcomes.- bsmith bsmith Sep 30, 2016 Is it authentic if its contrived in a classroom? Why does everything have to be in a classroom. John Dewey!!!!
http://premiseofschool09.blogspot.com/2009/10/john-dewey-modern-father-of.html (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016) - fledezma fledezma Oct 5, 2016When learning is authentic, it combines more than one discipline: the integration of disciplines is already happening in schools (at least in some new New Zealand schools) and is having a noticeable effect on the ability of students in those schools to learn deeply and significantly. This integration offers complementary opportunities to embed disciplinary practices that enhance subject content knowledge acquisition and meaning-making. This has LARGE implications for HE when such students enter such organisations. - n.wright n.wright Sep 13, 2016
I certainly agree with the above comment. It is and should be having these large implications as we are being increasingly challenged to make HE relevant and ensure that our graduates are more than just discipline ready- kevin_ashford_rowe kevin_ashford_rowe Sep 17, 2016 I agree, too. Kevin touched upon an important factor: the authentic assessment. In many, many cases there is no alignment whatsoever between the daily teaching/learning and the assessments.(And we should fix that too (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)) An exam that builds upon authentic learning is often expensive, and then the traditional essays/multiple choice etc. assessments are chosen. Embedded evaluation/patch work evaluation might be a good way of combining learning and assessment, but - admittedly - it's expensive, too. - ole ole Sep 20, 2016Authentic learning and authentic assessments are useful, needed and I support it. I feel that the challenge is that implementing authentic assessment and using valid assessment criteria/measures are sometimes complicated. Regular standardized assessments are often embraced, because they are more manageable. As in my earlier point, it
would be useful academics and support staff to derive relevant assessment measures for authentic learning - nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Sep 30, 2016.
So many of the technologies we have been discussing surely take us away from authentic experiences and towards virtual versions of it? From AR and VR through to mobile learning... we constantly seem to be pushing in the opposite direction, and run the risk of de-authenticising our whole system. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016 Agreed. How we choose to leverage technology matters, i.e. as an enhancement of a learning experience or a replacement for it. This nudges at using tech for tech's sake - a genuine and growing issue. Approached through the lens of critical-digital-pedagogy there is a distinct question of IF tech is appropriate or not - and saying it's not is just fine. This is evidenced in the gold-rush of institutions moving online. It is frequently done quickly and for the wrong reasons. Tech for tech's sake. Online for online's sake. This will continue to feed negative perceptions of online education being subpar, because in some of these cases - it is. - brad.hinson brad.hinson Sep 29, 2016I think this really is a part of the hybrid learning method that belong in HE discussion above (blended learning and informal learning). (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)

Economic and Political Pressure
Just read an article about UCSF outsourcing a bunch of its IT. Economic pressure (flat or declining enrollments, increasing cost, decreasing state support for public institutions) is going to be the #1 driver for tech adoption in learning. I don't think this is a good thing in and of itself. But it's a reality. Institutions are looking for ways to control costs, and that drives tech adoption. You wont hear it called cost cutting. But you'll hear the synonyms: Student retention, student success, student measurement, etc. But anything that use technology as a lever to reduce the cost of delivering a service will rise to the top. - david.thomas david.thomas Sep 19, 2016 Another field where educational developers must give alarm - se above - ole ole Sep 20, 2016- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 22, 2016 maybe its about efficiency (anathema to academics?)
Certainly one reason to push towards open education. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Sep 29, 2016
I am not completely sold on the idea that technology adoption is cost saving in education. Technology adoption in education makes things efficient- and perhaps effective. But that also means that we tend to pack in more. Aside from that, actually technology adoption creates various other costs. Technology adoption in certain niche areas of education may be cost saving- but not in terms of teaching and learning in my view ( unless we are talking about online learning). Student-centered and technology enabled learning is actually more cost in my views. - nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Sep 30, 2016 [Editor's Note: This reads more like a challenge and is therefore being moved to RQ4 Challenges.] Political Pressure (this issue is closely related to the Economic Pressure entry above) As governments are increasingly (in the U.S. at least) unable to fund higher education at the levels they did 20 or more years ago, and as obtaining a college education is now widely perceived to be the new required minimum level of education by many, large increases in enrollment have conspired with funding reductions and increased health care costs to dramatically drive up the cost of higher education. When combined with these cost increases, the rise of the large, online degree-providing private institutions has caused (rightly or wrongly) governmental scrutiny to be focused on education. Initially focused on cost, the scrutiny has now spread to the area of educational quality. For many state institutions of higher education, especially non-research and non-flagship universities, the political pressure to be frugal, increase graduation, and increase quality is increasing. There are relationships between digital learning innovation and political pressure in many cases. Politicians often taut what was called, only a few years ago, "21st Century Learning". The pressure to implement digital learning innovations seems to be increasing, along with generally decreasing funding. This is an environmental factor that cannot be overlooked. - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016 [Editor's Note: Combined with Economic Pressure]

Expanding Access
The global drive to increase the number of students participating in undergraduate education is placing pressure across the system. The oft-cited relationship between earning potential and educational attainment plus the clear impact of an educated society on the growth of the middle class is pushing governments to encourage more and more students to enter universities and colleges. In many countries, however, the population of students prepared for undergraduate study is already enrolled — expanding access means extending it to students who may not have the academic background to be successful without additional support.
Many in universities feel that these institutions do not have sufficient time and resources to help this set of students. However, promising new uses of artificial intelligence might address this challenge. A recent example is Jill Watson, an IBM AI service, that was evaluated as an online tutor by students in a Georgia Tech MOOC without their knowledge that they were giving feedback to a machine. Within the five year horizon, it is likely that other examples will prove the point that reaching and teaching masses is a challenge with a solution; the question may be, to what level of knowledge and capability can a machine tutor someone in their own language and adapt lessons to the need and speed of each learner. - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Aug 9, 2016This is a major international issue, with the global south seeking higher ed at a far higher clip than the demographically shrinking north. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Sep 9, 2016Whilst I am sure we can all agree that, philosophically speaking, expanding access to education is a good thing, aren't we running the risk of imposing our middle class measures of "success" on people who neither want nor need a degree in order to succeed in life, whilst simultaneously decreasing the value of our degrees? I believe we should provide an appropriate level of education free of charge to anyone that will benefit from it, irrespective of their socio-economic background. However, when I did my first degree, less than 5% of English 18 year olds went to university. In 2015, 31% of English 18 year olds were awarded places. Add this to the ever increasing cost of a degree, and the level of debt they create for our students, and it almost seems like a cruel act to entice people from disadvantaged backgrounds into our institutions with the promise of future opportunities that may or may not materialise when they graduate. I am not sure answers exist, only more questions, but surely somebody somewhere as to ask them. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016 As this panel is future focused, it seems reasonable to ask the question, do we need more graduates with more debt when there are less jobs due to increasing automation? How can access be more focused on preparing people for the future instead of our past? Is it time to resurrect "shop class" and bring back the skilled trades as a valued part of our society? When the automation fails, we are going to need skilled workers.
http://www.forbes.com/sites/tarabrown/2012/05/30/the-death-of-shop-class-and-americas-high-skilled-workforce/#7770b116d668 - whitneykilgore whitneykilgore Sep 26, 2016 - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016
This is a very important global issues and often received more publicity and attention on the K-12 front. In HigherEd it is important to finds ways to provide students with a support system that can enable them to reach and access higher education opportunities. - mayaig mayaig Oct 2, 2016

Facilitating Discovery of Learning Technologies
In the growing field of adaptive learning, many solutions promise to increase student success. Faculty may be motivated to adopt learning technologies when evidence indicates that students will benefit, but they cannot always find reputable information about technologies’ impact on teaching and learning. Even multiple studies of a single tool can yield varying results due to differences in research conditions such as learner populations and technical implementation support. In response to this challenge, leaders have created resources that compile digital learning technology reviews, efficacy research, and student impact data in searchable formats. While these tools and communities of practice represent first steps to aid institutional decision-makers, technology discovery and selection remain a complex web of considerations including factors such as tool interoperability, affordability, and the pedagogical needs of learners.- deone.zell deone.zell Oct 1, 2016 - Sam Sam Oct 3, 2016

I would add that we have to be cognizant of the old adage the "you can lead a horse to water." Too often we introduce learning technologies as "the latest and greatest thing" without any real analysis of the kinds of needs that faculty perceive in their respective teaching environments. This gives them little incentive to invest fully into any new technology that we bring to the table. This severely undermines the potential stickiness of anything we bring to the table. The Teaching Innovation Lab concept that we are developing at HCC is explicitly designed to be faculty-driven, both with respect with pedagogical innovation as well as technological augmentation. We will give them a menu of possibilities but it's up to the individual faculty member to determine the efficacy of the meal to his or her pedagogical mission. That way they also "own" what they are doing and will be far more passionate in making it work. You can't change people, you can only facilitate them on their journey of changing themselves. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 31, 2016
Financial Aid for Competency-Based Education
Competency-based education, which allows students to receive credit for and build on real-world skills more efficiently than the conventional semester system, provides a flexible and affordable solution for student success. Current evidence supports claims that these programs increase access to postsecondary credentials at more affordable costs for low-income and minority students. However, institutions are challenged with designing programs that map student progress into traditional credit hour equivalencies so students can qualify for federal financial aid. Organizations such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Lumina Foundation are investing significant resources to build solutions that create infrastructure and support for this accelerated college completion model. - Sam Sam Oct 3, 2016 - deone.zell deone.zell Oct 1, 2016

Improving Digital Literacy
With the proliferation of the Internet, mobile devices, and other technologies that are now pervasive in education, the traditional view of literacy as the ability to read and write has expanded to encompass understanding digital tools and information. This new category of competence is affecting how education institutions address literacy issues in their curriculum objectives and teacher development programs. Lack of consensus on what comprises digital literacy is impeding many colleges and universities from formulating adequate policies and programs that address this challenge. Discussions among educators have included the idea of digital literacy as equating to competence with a wide range of digital tools for varied educational purposes, or as an indicator of having the ability to critically evaluate resources available on the web. However, both definitions are broad and ambiguous. Compounding this issue is the notion that digital literacy encompasses skills that differ for educators and learners, as teaching with technology is inherently different from learning with it.
As I've previously stated (Horizon.AU) I believe that the requirement to be functionally literate (in this case digitally literate) is going to be as fundamentally important to succeeding in the Information Age and Knowledge Economy as reading, writing and arithmetic were to the Industrial Age. In the same way that the move from Agrarian to Industrial economy was enabled via an Industrial Revolution, I think that we are now in the midst of an 'Information Revolution' moving us from Industrial to Information Economy. If that is an appropriate metaphor then it probably assists us in understanding the functional importance of literacy and the challenges that many will face in acquiring it. - kevin_ashford_rowe kevin_ashford_rowe Aug 9, 2016 Definitely, this!- anthony.helm anthony.helm Aug 29, 2016 - helga helga Sep 19, 2016- jantonio jantonio Sep 28, 2016 - yvette.drager yvette.drager Sep 29, 2016 This is a very challenging issue more for teachers than learners as many teachers are still in the mindset of an Industrial Revolution.- kumiko.aoki kumiko.aoki Sep 20, 2016 I couldn't agree more - and have stated this in other contexts here - ole ole Sep 20, 2016 Digital literacy development occurs in spaces rather than vacuums. With the time to play, experiment, see others do it/useit, it is very difficult to know HOW, let alone WHY.All too often academics tell me that they are afraid they will "look foolish" in front of their students by trying or, even worse, failing to use even the most established technologies, let alone "new" ones (anything that involves using a computer or, gods forbid, a mobile device seems to fall into this category. Having said that, it used to be anything with a plug, so things have at least moved on from that...) and only by increasing the digital literacy in our educators can we ever hope to raise the digital literacy of our students. Roll out the tech to all staff, give them time to get used to it (this could take years, may take months, but certainly will not happen in a couple of weeks) for it to become embedded in their daily lives, and then, and only then, should we roll it out to the students. All too often it all happens simultaneously, and institutions wonder why nobody is making use of the multi-million pound/dollar/yen system that promised so much when they bought it. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016- yvette.drager yvette.drager Sep 29, 2016 It's not just the institutional systems, there are a raft of tools (O365 etc) that can be used in conjunction with the LMS/VLE. Staff development is the key - nwitt nwitt Oct 2, 2016- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 22, 2016 - rc_sharma rc_sharma Oct 2, 2016
Surely its time to go well beyond 'digital literacy' ? e.g.
https://www.theguardian.com/higher-education-network/blog/2012/may/15/digital-literacy-in-universities
As it takes so long to change in education with need very strong visions of the future skills
- rebeccad rebeccad Oct 2, 2016Yes, we need to move beyond digital literacy to integration across the curriculum and equipping students to partner with technology to solve problems. See this report from AAC&U: Bass, Randy, and Bret Eynon. “Open and Integrative: Designing Liberal Education for the New Digital Ecosystem.” Association of American Colleges and Universities, June 16, 2016. https://www.aacu.org/publications-research/publications/open-and-integrative-designing-liberal-education-new-digitalWhile technology and digital literacy may be high in general, I feel that there is room for improvement in terms of using technology as meaningful tools to transform teaching and learning. I think that predominant use would be at the level of substitution and modification in the scale of SAMR. The challenge is not about not using technology but the level of usage.. The other observation is that the assumption that millennial students are more technology ready and hence they would use technology for learning could be an overestimation. In my studies with students asking them on their use of technology tools for learning, I learnt that they use limited set of technology tools for learning itself. Yes, they could use technology tools in general in social circle etc, but they do not eem to be conversant in using technology for learning. I suppose that there is a barrier in transfer of skills. It is like being fluent in spoken English, but we may not be that comfortable in academic writing. The same way, students may be comfortable using technology in general but they need not be comfortable in using these tools for learning - nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Sep 30, 2016.Strongly agree, digital literacy of students is easily assumed but no real attention is paid to testing their literacy and improving it. Yet it is essential to using technology effective during education and in the jobs students work in after graduating. - M.vanWetering M.vanWetering Oct 2, 2016One aspect of digital literacy that used to be split out is information/media literacy; this was first developed by numerous medialiteracy organizations (e.g., Center for Media Literacy <http://medialit.org>) and also the information literaciesdeveloped by the American Library Association (ALA), ACRL and other related library groups(e.g., <http://www.ala.org/acrl/standards/informationliteracycompetency>).Well, this poses an interesting question as we need to focus on both improving the "digital literacy" of faculty who can better use digital tools to teach critical thinking and improv4 dgital literacy of students.
Not to mention that when technology is used in the classroom it often lacks from available business solutions and cases.- mayaig mayaig Oct 2, 2016
Because our concepts of literacy continue to evolve in response to our changing world, digital literacy and literacy overall feel as if they are long-term topics to be explored as we continue incorporating new technology in the learning process.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 5, 2016I think we will have truly succeeded in this effort when can drop the word "digital" (or "information" or "visual") this concept. There are many literacies and students should have at least a passing fluency with all of them. "Digital" just unlocks the doors to a wider range of opportunities than we had in the text-only world prevalent a few decades ago. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 31, 2016
Integrating Student Data Across Platforms
The growing use of data mining software in online education is fostering learning environments that leverage analytics and visualizations to portray learning data in a multidimensional and portable manner. In online and blended courses, data can reveal how student actions contribute to their progress and specific learning gains. These technologies, enhanced by predictive analytics, have great potential to support student success by identifying and reaching out to struggling students and streamlining the path to graduation. As institutions implement learning management systems, degree planning technologies, early alert systems, and tutor scheduling that promote increased interactions among students, faculty, and advising staff, there is a need for centralized aggregation of these data to provide students with holistic support that improves learning outcomes. This can be a challenge for institutions that are using a variety of technology systems that are not integrated with each other. Further, while colleges and universities are capturing a deluge of student data, often this information sits in divisional and departmental silos, falling short of informing comprehensive decision-making and creating predictive models. - Sam Sam Oct 3, 2016 - deone.zell deone.zell Oct 2, 2016We've seen greater adoption of LMS's that are user-friendly, and given that they are a given component of education today, we may see further consolidation given the advantages offered by having numerous institutions on the same platform.- deone.zell deone.zell Oct 1, 2016

Integrating Technology in Teacher Education
Teacher training still does not acknowledge the fact that digital media literacy continues its rise in importance as a key skill in every discipline and profession. Despite the widespread agreement on the importance of digital competence, training in the supporting skills and techniques is rare in teacher education and non-existent in the preparation of teachers. As teachers begin to realize that they are limiting their students by not helping them to develop and use digital competence skills across the curriculum, the lack of formal training is being offset through professional development or informal learning, but we are far from seeing digital media literacy as a norm. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that digital literacy is less about tools and more about thinking, and thus skills and standards based on tools and platforms have proven to be somewhat ephemeral.
There is widespread recognition that integrating technology with content knowledge and pedagogy specific to a field of knowledge (e.g. How to teach music versus mathematics, with the characteristic tools, approaches and inquiry methods of the field) is essential knowledge for the next generation of teachers. Research on the TPACK model is helping to advance this understanding and practice in teacher education. However, faculties of education and their leadership have been slow to adopt this knowledge, allowing instead many traditional instructors to remain ignorant and incapable of embodying this principle. Perhaps the relevant current challenge is vision and leadership to act on what the field already knows about integrating technology into all aspects of learning and teaching. - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Aug 9, 2016 - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 5, 2016Can we be specific about context here? I take issue with this initial statement "Teacher training still does not acknowledge the fact that digital media literacy continues its rise in importance as a key skill in every discipline and profession". For example, Initial teacher education in our university includes a clear focus on digital proficiency and pedagogically appropriate uses. We also have, since the mid 1990s, had one undergraduate teacher education bachelor's degree fully online. Since mid 2000s we have a graduate programme version online too, and we use digital technologies regularly in f2f programmes too, to develop digital fluency and purposeful pedagogical application - n.wright n.wright Sep 13, 2016.As one who has taught educational technology at the graduate level, I would argue that the greatest challenge may still be that teacher training programs have not integrated technology and learning theory and practice across their curricula. We can't change things with one ed tech course. We need faculty and materials that build tech into all elements of their preparation. We teach the way we were taught. Proper modeling of the integration of technology in teaching is essential in order to shift this paradigm.- whitneykilgore whitneykilgore Sep 26, 2016 Ditto! - brad.hinson brad.hinson Sep 29, 2016 Totally agree - yvette.drager yvette.drager Sep 29, 2016 As for the ed tech courses themselves, In scanning chapter topics for textbooks, I am seeing too much about software, HTML, and Power Point. Perhaps we should start with requiring future teachers to read - MarwinBritto MarwinBritto Oct 1, 2016Agreed. It's the "inoculation method" (i.e. one course) vs. the "infusion method" (integrated throughout the teacher ed. curriculum). In my experience, I have found that teacher ed. programs recognizing that one course is at one end of the spectrum, with some planning and professional development, move along the continuum to a more systemic approach. I am noticing this same trend now in information literacy. Students can be expected to become adept at information literacy with one-shot instruction from the librarians. Faculty need to model this and integrate this into their course assignments across the curriculum.
Ditch That Textbook: Free Your Teaching and Revolutionize Your Classroom by Matt Miller. If the deans and department heads of teacher-training institutions read Horizon Reports, maybe they would understand the limits that textbook publishers bring. - Lawrence.Miller Lawrence.Miller Sep 19, 2016 We need to be cautious when embracing the "Ditch the Textbook" thinking that we don't throw out the baby with the bathwater. There are many educators who lean on existing curricular materials when they first enter the profession or when they change grade levels. The textbook while it has some challenges (ok, many) provide a framework that can help a new educator begin to develop their own framework for developing their own materials or for them to begin the curation process of pulling together OERs and other materials to support learning outcomes. This being said, there may be a need to think not just about teaching future teachers about proper integration of technology into their teaching (with proper modeling) but also how to go about ditching the textbook if indeed that is the future of the profession. - whitneykilgore whitneykilgore Sep 26, 2016 May I - also here - recommend this link: http://cul.au.dk/en/training-courses-and-workshops/go-online-course-on-blended-learning/. This course is mandatory for all full and associate prfrssors at my academic area, and an intergrated part of the mandatory teacher training programme for assistant professors and post.docs. - ole ole Sep 20, 2016
I have lost count of the times I have seen presentations at various conferences over the years ABOUT Blended Learning that do not utilise even the basic principles OF Blended Learning to impart knowledge to the people in the room. The same could be said about almost all tech demos - why present a PowerPoint ABOUT a 360 camera when you could make a 360 movie about 360 cameras USING a 360 camera? (It should be noted that this MAY involve the use of a second 360 camera - good luck explaining that to the guys in finance - but I digress...). I honestly believe this failure to practise what we preach is one of the major barriers to adoption in not just the education of educators but the education of our students. Whether is fear of failure (see my diatribe in Improving Digital Literacy above), a lack of interest, a lack of knowledge, or a combination of all three, we have find a way to help them get over it and get on with it. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016 I beg to differ from this opinion. I think the choice of technology tools and the pedagogy/choice of instruction depends on the goal/learning outcomes. If one wants to just share information, and the context is such that the person needs to communicate in a sort time frame, then probably a powerpoint presentation will suffice. Yes, it is nice to have a live demo etc, but it depends on time available etc. I think this is one of the conceptions that needs to be considered. Alignment of instructional outcomes, with the instructional activities, assessment ( Biggs, 1999) together with the appropriate technology that suits the purpose. In my views, faculty development programmes on technology enabled needs to be more holistic in embracing the use of technology and pedagogy , rather than focusing on the technical nuances of technology. While this is important, this is not sufficient. Pedagogical underpinnings need to drive technology enabled learning - nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Sep 30, 2016.I also would like to add that we need to teach upcoming teachers how to "Learn" with technology and to integrate a personalized learning network into their lives to help continue to support them throughout their careers. This also holds true to the Australian VET sector with the need for all VET practitioners to hold a Certificate IV (minimum) or Diploma in training and assessment, as part of these qualifications we need to see the technology units become core rather than electives (which are often not taught as the teachers of these units do not have the skills). If the VET trainers AND new teachers are all then utilizing technology and demonstrating good use then it will hopefully support the lifelong learning principles for students. - yvette.drager yvette.drager Sep 29, 2016 Agree with this, and remain a firm supporter of connectivist MOOCs as one of the finest ways for learning facilitators to learn how to incorporate technology effectively into their own learning environments.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 5, 2016I agree with the notions that technology should no longer be seen as an add-on or a 'course' in teacher preparation. The problem really is captured in the title of this segment - it's the integration. Teaching, working, and learning digitally to some capacity is the new normal. And as we are preparing future teachers for the future... seems we should be swimming in these teaching methods and philosophies across all of our teacher preparation programs. I work in a Graduate School of Education so I feel comfortable speaking critically on this topic... = ) As always, there are pockets of excellence - but overall we have not embraced digital pedagogy as a core value that transcends all we do. The status-quo is change-resistant. - brad.hinson brad.hinson Sep 29, 2016(- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)Strongly agree with Brad, we need to address 'the problem' at the core: teacher training with integral attention for technology, 'digital pedagogy' should be the same as pedagogy. - M.vanWetering M.vanWetering Oct 2, 2016 Lack of Faculty Training in Required Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills Many of the most interesting developments - e.g. competencies-based learning, adaptive learning tools - require skills and knowledge from faculty that many lack. For instance, good competencies-based training requires systematic approaches to the "rechunking" and reflowing of what were once monolithic courses in ways that make sense beyond "well, unit one of the course is now competency one, and unit two is now..." Similarly, good use of adaptive learning tools requires that faculty be both familiar with and comfortable in the design of formative assessment processes that do not look much like what has been the norm in higher education. This is a separate problem from the "Integrating Technology in Teacher Education" mentioned above - these skills are necessary even in higher ed institutions where technology is not playing a major role, given shifts in student and workplace expectations.- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 2, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016 for me, its time we abandoned completely the idea of faculty 'training' (dagger to the heart...) and insted working on raising awareness of future directions for their disciplines and how to encompass them into their teaching and learning provision. [Editor's Note: Lack of Faculty Training discussion added here to be combined with Integrating Technology in Teacher Education challenge.]
Innovation Implementation Learning Curves
As rapid changes in educational technology transform the state of teaching and learning, faculty members may encounter obstacles as they adapt their pedagogies and experiment with new methods of content delivery. New approaches also have potential to impact students’ experiences as they adjust their learning proficiencies. It is important that faculty remain mindful of the spectrum of technological capabilities possessed by their students. As students lead the charge for more affordable materials and the field begins to understand the affordances of innovative technologies, institutions must work with faculty to support transitions to flexible, lower-cost options and incorporate tools and methods designed to improve student outcomes. Robust professional development strategies can increase instructors’ self-efficacy and ensure that faculty are prepared for this teaching shift, enabling them to create positive, productive learning environments.
I think that this belongs with the integrating technology in Faculty and Teacher (which should really become learning coach and facilitator) discussion above. (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016 university of western australia futuring and strategizing for both incremental and adaptive learning and readica, technology driven - and pipelines between them.
IT Management and Methodology
(Or, old IT versus new IT) If you are familiar with the shift in programming methodology from "waterfall" to "agile" then you have a taste of the big battle going on in university IT departments these days. The reality of the situation is that most large organizational IT departments are run by people who grew up in, and were very successful and managing a very different IT world. Consider that the "the cloud" wasn't on the horizon 10 years ago. Today it dominates the tech landscape.
There is a cultural shift happening in IT. And where it is happening quickly, we see big changes and big opportunities. Where it is changing slowly, we see resistance and friction. Sometimes the problem isn't in IT itself, it's in IT infrastructure. Multi-million dollar investments in student information, billing and management system take a lot of organizational momentum to escape. So, to put this into perspective, maybe an organizations wants off their legacy LMS. It it could literally take years to put contemporary course building tools in the hands of faculty and mobile apps into the pockets of students.
I recently read the book Anti-fragile by Talib (the author of the Black Swan). I'd recommend it to anyone in IT (well, anyone, really). One of the many things that stands out to me is that the shift in IT is also a shift in risk and change management. Old IT was built on the back of Cold War era design science and command and control organizations. The new IT (you know, Google, Facebook, Instragram, Slack, et al) really has taken a page from more contemporary views of error-tolerant, test and try, independent contributors and investing in success models that have long worked for entrepreneurs. But now they are doing it at scale. Old IT locks down systems to secure them. New IT invites attacks and focuses on response. Old IT plans and executes. New IT tests and iterates. Old IT focuses on stability as a core value. New IT focuses on flexibility as a core value.
It all sounds like hand waving and editorializing at times. Looking at your organizations, you can see this dichotomy at play--faculty who want to use Dropbox and central IT supporting network file shares, students who want to to consume content on their phones and faculty who rely on centrally supported lecture capture that outputs content in PC-only formats. Departmental administrators using AirTable to track admission decisions and central SIS managers struggling to update an outmoded web portal that no one wants to use.
One lats thing--there is a ton of wisdom in what I am calling "old IT". So, I don't want to suggest throwing out the old in the excitement of the new. I just want to acknowledge that our underlying IT systems and process are critical to understanding and facilitating change in EdTech. - david.thomas david.thomas Sep 12, 2016 - ole ole Sep 20, 2016 - jantonio jantonio Sep 28, 2016- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 22, 2016 - Jean-Pierre.Berthet Jean-Pierre.Berthet Oct 2, 2016 sure I think we need both - I'm seeing 'mobile' as a channel that brings a lot of it together. And using the say LMS (old IT!) but what it has to be used for and the rest for innovation. Or is the LMS over the hill? Mobile will continue to dominate and dictate because students expect everything to be delivered through their phones - and to be notified. - deone.zell deone.zell Oct 1, 2016
LMS that seemed to provide all the answers ten years ago are no longer fit for purpose. Time to move on. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016- deone.zell deone.zell Oct 1, 2016
Our IT department is creating a global learning ecosystem that acknowledges both tools we support and the ones that exist outside of our control. Both students and faculty need to develop resilience in face of technology change. One public description of this ecosystem is here (2nd paragraph):
https://rebeccafrostdavis.wordpress.com/2015/03/14/liberal-education-in-the-emerging-digital-ecosystem/ At the same time, we are working on internal organizational development to adopt to changes needed in IT.

Technology is inherently disruptive and this will increasingly apply to the more inflexible parts of IT. We are already seeing systems that fundamentally undermine the systems architecture that exists today in much the same way as the personal computer undermined the mainframe 30 years ago. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 31, 2016

Keeping Formal Education Relevant
As online learning and free educational content become more pervasive, stakeholders and administrators must seriously consider what schools can provide that cannot be replicated by other sources. It is no longer necessary for parents to send their children to school for them to become knowledgeable and gain skills that will lead them to gainful employment. There are, however, valuable skills and attitudes that can only be acquired in school settings. Soft skills, such as face-to-face communication and collaboration, for instance, are essential practices for solving problems in a world that is increasingly interconnected. Similarly, work ethic and the ability to persevere through even the toughest challenges, both social and academic, are reinforced in formal education environments. The idea is to rethink the value of education as a means of reinforcing attitudes and skills learners will need to seek credible information, work effectively in teams, and persist in achieving their goals. A recent survey by the Workforce Solutions Group found that more than 60% of employers say applicants lack “communication and interpersonal skills.” On the same note, the National Association of Colleges and Employers surveyed more than 200 employers about their top ten priorities in new hires and found that hiring managers desire people who are team players, problem solvers and can plan, organize and prioritize their work while technical skills fell lower on the list. Generally speaking, trends in hiring make it clear that soft skills such as communication and work ethic are differentiating outstanding applicants from the pile. - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Sep 11, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 22, 2016 in my view we need to go well beyond the ideas of soft skills and differentiation for current jobs
https://www.fastcompany.com/3046277/the-new-rules-of-work/the-top-jobs-in-10-years-might-not-be-what-you-expect, to offer really great futures to our students they need to be prepared for as yet unknown jobs in uncertain futures
There is so much more to a university education than the acquisition of knowledge. Probably the most useful thing I learned as an undergraduate was who I was, and who I wanted to be. I don't remember ever going to a class to learn that. This is one of the reasons why I feel traditional first degrees are so important, as opposed to distance learning degrees, which often short change students, particularly in the areas of personal and professional development. Whilst we may not know what the jobs of the future will be, surely the ability to work in a team, resilience, self-awareness, communication skills, and a strong work ethic are going to remain at the top of the employer wish lists along with genuine work experience - the good news is that a year in industry can often help to instill or improve all of those things, as well as improve academic performance once the student returns - if only they could be made compulsory across all disciplines... - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016I agree to many of Damian's comments; so much of my time as an undergrad (and grad student) at the University of California, Berkeley, was spent not in classrooms, but in taking advantage of all the different kinds of cultural, research, and other institutions that were both on and surrounding the campus--and the greater San Francisco Bay Area. Also, many of my early leadership skills came from student-run organizations that provided value to the community. Doing these contributes a great deal to developing self-knowledge and helping define and refine part of one's passions and life missions. Not sure just how much technology, per se, plays a role here, but in being able to look back now over 40+ years, this is something we often miss in just online classes or various formal orms of personal assessment of interests, skills, and strengths. - ted ted Oct 1, 2016Agreed, but those things will happen as one grows up, unless we do keep our learners in a bubble, and so the campus will be replaced by the community they live and learn.Although how fraternities and sororities will change to ensure they keep attracting members who learn to be leaders will be interesting to watch. Many of the USA top business organizations had fraternity men at the helm at least according to statistics from a few short years ago (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)
This should be termed keeping "education" relevant. We'll be okay as long as we are flexible about "formal" means. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 31, 2016
Managing Knowledge Obsolescence
Simply staying organized and current presents a challenge in a world where information, software tools, and devices proliferate at the rate they do today. New developments in technology are exciting and their potential for improving quality of life is enticing, but it can be overwhelming to attempt to keep up with even a few of the many new tools that are released. User-created content is exploding, giving rise to information, ideas, and opinions on all sorts of interesting topics, but following even some of the hundreds of available authorities means sifting through a mountain of information on a weekly or daily basis. There is a greater need than ever for effective tools and filters for finding, interpreting, organizing, and retrieving the data that is important to us. I agree that this will be a major challenge for teachers.- kumiko.aoki kumiko.aoki Sep 20, 2016 I entirely agree.Teachers should cooperate much more intensively with the libraties that have several tools etc. at their disposal. I'm no libraian myself, but for years I have beaten the drum for much more integration of the libraries in the stuides - not as this eternal appendix, but as a partner in its owen right - ole ole Sep 20, 2016
This is one of the reasons technology conferences are so valuable. In the U.K. the JISC conferences are especially useful, as the content has been carefully filtered to bring to the forefront only the very best and most useful technological advances available at that particular moment in time, along with top of the line keynotes, and updates on relevant changes on government legislation. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016It seems knowledge obsolescence feeds the issue of keeping formal education relevant (above). Increasingly, we are teaching one another. Increasingly, we are autodidactic. This shifts everyone's role and perception - undermining the role of teachers and formal education. And libraries. That is - it undermines the traditional roles played by teachers, schools, and libraries. It nudges at the status-quo and challenges us to adapt. Those who adapt will fair better than those who stand their ground. This is not something we fight, it is something we embrace. Again, our greatest challenge is our own culture. - brad.hinson brad.hinson Sep 29, 2016- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016 mm yes but I'm a bit over saying ' its culture' - instead lets create future changes...the culture follows ?As I said the Horizon AU In the VET sector primarily because of the length of time that evidence must be kept, it is crucial that organisations consider obsolescence with the storage and retrieval of backups and put in place a digital preservation strategy to ensure that they will still be able to access these records. Also training organisations need to consider technology obsolescence when looking at purchasing or accessing systems for training to ensure longevity.- yvette.drager yvette.drager Sep 29, 2016

Opacity of Processes to Stakeholders
Whether it's AI, or advanced analytics, or blockchain systems, all of these tools have great potential, but also a great pitfall: at this point in time, they are largely opaque to the stakeholders that would be using them. For instance, almost every description of AlphaGo, the AI engine that defeated Lee Sedol in Go, used an "and then a miracle occurs" - http://www.sciencecartoonsplus.com/pages/gallery.php - to explaining how the type of neural net involved works. This was not just a problem in the newspapers - tech magazines were just as bad. For these tools to be used intelligently, with grounded trust, and with confidence, processes to educate stakeholders in their mechanics and limitations need to be created that go beyond "trust me" approaches.- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 2, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016

Personalizing Learning
Personalized learning refers to the range of educational programs, learning experiences, instructional approaches, and academic-support strategies intended to address the specific learning needs, interests, aspirations, or cultural backgrounds of individual students. While there is a demand for personalized learning, it is not adequately supported by current technology or practices — especially at scale. - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016 yes Ive been trying to get help on this and OMG its NOWHERE The increasing focus on customizing instruction to meet students’ unique needs is driving the development of new technologies that provide more learner choice and allow for differentiated instruction. Advances such as online learning environments and adaptive learning technologies make it possible to support a learner’s individual learning path. A major barrier to personalized learning, however, is that scientific, data-driven approaches to effectively facilitate personalization have only recently begun to emerge; adaptive learning, for example, is still evolving and gaining traction within higher education. Compounding the challenge is the notion that technology alone is not the whole solution — personalized learning efforts must incorporate effective pedagogy and include faculty in the development process. - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Sep 11, 2016- jantonio jantonio Sep 28, 2016 - ole ole Sep 20, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 22, 2016 - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016 yes its very frustrating that this area is driving so slowly (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016) - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016
Real traction on personalization will emerge when enterprise level solutions can integrate what is known about students in near real time data capture and dynamic (updated daily at least) desktop analytics displays designed for different decision-makers are available on demand throughout the hierarchy of administration, heads of schools, course and unit coordinators, classroom instructors, researchers and students. - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Aug 9, 2016Some US state government support for this. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Sep 9, 2016 I would also like to link this to that discussion point around Quality Metrics in the new topic area as there has been discussion there around learning analytics and personalized learning. - yvette.drager yvette.drager Sep 29, 2016Whilst this could indeed be a useful way of utilising the date we are currently amassing, my concern, as ever, is that this could be used to replace existing methods of personalised learning rather than augment it, enabling institutions to, somewhat ironically, depersonalise the learner/teacher relationship by facilitating huge class sizes, perhaps with a combination of students who are in the lecture theatre and students who are online, where the teacher has little, if any, personal interaction with their students, knowing them only by their student number, and the data associated with it. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016Closely related to personalized learning is Adaptive Learning. Learning that adapts to the needs of the learner based on performance, mood, interest, time of day, and prior learning will truly be personalized. - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016 And here is where the virtual world, with smart assessment, and AI will support the ability of faculty to go into programs and personalize it for the learner. (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016) This is a personal passion and I think ought to remain high on the list of importance and issues for credentialing bodies and faculty alike to pay close attention to and to drive. (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)++ on the importance of adaptive learning. - M.vanWetering M.vanWetering Oct 2, 2016

Rethinking the Roles of Educators
Educators are increasingly expected to be adept at a variety of technology-based and other approaches for content delivery, learner support, and assessment; to collaborate with other teachers both inside and outside their schools; to routinely use digital strategies in their work with students; to act as guides and mentors in to promote student-centered learning; and to organize their own work and comply with administrative documentation and reporting requirements. Students add to these expectations through their own use of technology to socialize, organize, and informally learn on a daily basis. The integration of technology into everyday life is causing many educational thought leaders to argue that institutions should be providing ways for students to continue to engage in learning activities, formal and informal, beyond the traditional school day. As this trend gathers steam, many institutions across the world are rethinking the primary responsibilities of educators. Related to these evolving expectations are changes in the ways educators engage in their own continuing professional development, much of which involves social media and online tools and resources. - kevin_ashford_rowe kevin_ashford_rowe Aug 10, 2016 I think that, at least from the Australian perspective, this is going to be the industrial challenge of our time! It is not at all clear that the current academic work model (traditionally: 40% teaching:40% research:20% community engagement/leadership) is going to be sustainable in the face of increasing competition. It may well be that this becomes the area of our operation that is most significantly disrupted by technology. This is an interesting point from the HE Australian perspective as the Australian VET sector is moving to seeing the trainers more as facilitators of knowledge, which has been a cultural shift for many practitioners. - yvette.drager yvette.drager Sep 29, 2016- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016
The roles of faculty will need to become increasingly specialized based on interest and skill. Some will be teachers. Others will be researchers. Still others will create learning materials and experiences. Like the field of medicine, specialization has the potential to revolutionize higher education. - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016This is a most important challenge, and it calls for collabaration and for having expert teams that can act as lookouts for new opportunities and 'translate' them into the individual learning/teaching context. Too often individual teachers uses much time to investigate new programmes etc. only to realise that s/he had wasted his/her time - that there are other and better possibiliteis tha s/he just didn't stumble on. One example is the cornucopia of voting systems. They do look similar, but there are often features in the depts of the programmes that you don't find without the general knowledge of this type of tool.- ole ole Sep 20, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016 multiple professional teams- and learning design is our best hope I thinkone important emerging role is to contribute to team efforts in the design of game-based and other digital delivery systems so that content, tutoring, face to face, and both individual and team leaning can be supported at scale. The old model of one instructor for a small number of students is going to migrate to the higher levels of research-based learning and to field-based apprenticeship as self-directed learning with machine support takes over the introductory and foundational levels of education.- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 22, 2016 Agree at University of Western Australia we are calling our academic teachers' learning leaders' and the first module in their development is about imagining the future for their disciplines. Well its a start!I honestly think we need to rethink the roles of both teachers and students. Facts and figures are just a button click or two away, so why base the curriculum and, indeed, examinations, around solo fact retention and regurgitation. Time and time again academics complained about having to "spoon feed" students, but as their jobs now rely on their students getting consistently good results, academics are often reluctant to change existing methods if they seem to be working. Employers tell us students do not have the skills they need when they graduate - so why don't we concentrate on giving them those skills? See "Keeping Formal Education Relevant" - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016 yep a return to lifeling learning for life and careers- - babies born today will have multiple careers, many of them as not yet inventedIt is not only rethinking the role of teachers and students, as both actors and partners in learning, but also bring in the learning relationship and environment the role of the community and of the workplace. Experiential learning, project-based, community-based approaches redefined the pedagogical relationship and the roles of all actors in this relationship.- agermain agermain Sep 30, 2016 Totally agree with you - Jean-Pierre.Berthet Jean-Pierre.Berthet Sep 30, 2016(- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)This is another important topic that belongs at the top of the list along with personalized learning if there are going to be changes in HE, helping faculty (and thus administrators to support them) understand and adopt their new role is what will move that forward. (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)Agreed, this is a logical consequence of data-driven adaptive learning, teachers are still needed but need to do different things. As is always a consequence of innovation in human society. Education has tried to exclude itself from this truth long enough... - M.vanWetering M.vanWetering Oct 2, 2016With the advance of AI, teachers are likely to become curators of content and performance coaches way more than the source of knowledge; learners will find any information they need in a couple of clicks, but steering them to the right direction is something AI might not be able to achieve (yet) as well as a human being can. As educators, we need to be able to embrace this change. - paulo.dantas paulo.dantas Oct 3, 2016Repeating a comment I made in the Trends section; I believe it works equally well here: Rethinking is a key element of every Horizon Project report I've read and to which I've contributed, so it's no surprise to me that it would be here. We might as well just rename our reports "The Horizon Report: A Field Guide to Rethinking Learning > [fill in the blank] Edition." Given the rapid pace of change we face in nearly every part of our lives, to not rethink is to not effectively ride the wave of change into the sort of future we want to create and relish.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 5, 2016
EdTech and Evolving Roles of Faculty Advances in educational technology are altering delivery methods of course materials as well as student interactions with the content and their instructors. As adaptive technology platforms and advancements in online learning tools disrupt traditional learning models, some faculty perceive the changes as a paradigm shift that diminishes their role in designing the learning experience. Educators who are already strapped for time and resources often struggle to convert their traditional lesson plans to encompass emerging technologies such as digital courseware. However, a number of institutional initiatives are revealing that faculty engagement with these tools may play a significant role in student success by helping faculty better manage time and providing them with a more comprehensive perspective of student progress. These tools are freeing up faculty to undertake deeper roles as mentors, guiding students through active learning exercises instead of dispensing information in lecture formats. - Sam Sam Oct 3, 2016
What makes those types of faculty engagement with technology succeed with students?- bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Sep 30, 2016 The growing trend of open source learning material open faculty to use a diversity of resources, enriching their course materials, updating it more often, and also helping them to gain time (not having to constantly redo the wheel but repurpose and just slightly modify available open source materials. Furthermore, integrating educational technology in their courses forces faculty to rethink the design of their course, to rethink their role and the role of their students, and therefore the type of learning and assessment activities that can happen online. Nothing new in what i say, however many faculty are still going through this paradigm shift. - agermain agermain Oct 1, 2016 [Editor's Note: EdTech and Evolving Roles discussion added here because of overlapping nature with Rethinking Roles.]

Safety of Student Data
Safety of student data has long been a concern in K-12 education, which is evident through legislation that has been passed to safeguard students and their personal data, such as the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act in the United States.106 As schools embrace ubiquitous technology, and more learning takes place online and in 1:1 settings, researchers see great potential to leverage these digital learning environments to mine data, which can be used to decipher trends in student behavior and create personalized software. Schools around the world are adopting cloud computing to support adaptive learning, promote cost-savings, and encourage collaboration, but sometimes the safety of student data is threatened when third-party vendors provide low-cost software as a service in return for access to student data that they then profit from.
Add to this; students owning their own data. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Sep 9, 2016 - helga helga Sep 19, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 22, 2016- jantonio jantonio Sep 28, 2016The only real way to ensure the safety of data is not to collect it In the first place. If it must be collected, then it should be anonymised. If it is anonymised, it becomes less useful to all parties, whatever their motives. We give so much information away free of charge to third parties, from our LMS suppliers to our anti-plagiarism solution providers, and let's not forget the the information the students themselves freely share with social media platforms, mobile phone providers, supermarkets, online retailers and those loveable chaps at Google. Perhaps our only hope is that there is so much information it proves impossible to mine. For now. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016 Agree Damian - yvette.drager yvette.drager Sep 29, 2016 It is also a governance issue, senior leaders do not understand the ramifications until it it too late, perhaps we need to rethink the boring policy, data stewardship approaches and be explicit that there is accountability when dealign with data - nwitt nwitt Oct 2, 2016Very important, this is about privacy by design and user centric identity management. - M.vanWetering M.vanWetering Oct 2, 2016 - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 5, 2016 Data Fatigue / Privacy concerns We've seen a rush to "big data" over the past three years ago. I'm seeing a week signal around people looking for metrics that are more reliable and accurate than the "count all the things" mania of the early teens, and this - driven by concerns around data collection and privacy, alongside the beginnings of evidence based reflection on data usage, suggests that similar projects will see diminishing returns.. Altmetrics have become a more nuanced proposition - in the UK "The Metric Tide" felt like a watershed moment on the insane research power metrics that destroy the lives of academics - Jisc's Code of Practice for Learning Analytics developed by the NUS would be an example from the student perspective. You could tie in to wider issues around social media platform data. - dkernohan dkernohan Sep 20, 2016- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 22, 2016 I can see where you're coming from on this but I don't see that weak signal in Australia, we're gradually getting to grips with data on students activity in the LMS/VLE that we dont have to survey but is based on real time collection.- yvette.drager yvette.drager Sep 29, 2016As long as we use the data responsibly, and limit access to it from outside agencies who may not share our benevolent viewpoint, our data could provide a useful tool in helping our students to fulfil their true potential - after all, isn't that what we are all about? - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016
Just one more detail: some data pushes seem to be top-down; effective data initiatives mean that users at all levels understand value of data and have access to the relevant data. - rebeccad rebeccad Oct 2, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016 at UWA we're attempting a pilot that intends data for student efficacy. [Editor's Note: Combined with Safety of Student Data discussion.]

Scaling Teaching Innovations
Our organizations are not adept at moving teaching innovations into mainstream practice. Innovation springs from the freedom to connect ideas in new ways. Our schools and universities generally allow us to connect ideas only in prescribed ways — sometimes these lead to new insights, but more likely they lead to rote learning. Current organizational promotion structures rarely reward innovation and improvements in teaching and learning. A pervasive aversion to change limits the diffusion of new ideas, and too often discourages experimentation. - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Sep 11, 2016 This really supports the discussion of new faculty roles. If they aren't recognized for innovation and bringing change then there is little on a professional motivator to have them do so. (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)
I think that this should include scaling professional development - kevin_ashford_rowe kevin_ashford_rowe Sep 19, 2016 - ole ole Sep 20, 2016- jantonio jantonio Sep 28, 2016 - yvette.drager yvette.drager Sep 29, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 22, 2016 - Jean-Pierre.Berthet Jean-Pierre.Berthet Oct 2, 2016 professional development for innovation. A couple of ways I see this happening today is with education twitter chats and edcamps. These two formats foster sharing, creativity and support innovative educators who may have difficulty finding that support internal to their institution. - whitneykilgore whitneykilgore Sep 26, 2016Perhaps a combination of readily available funding to scale things up after successful small scale pilots, and reassurance from our institutions that if it does not work, it will not be a career-ending catastrophe would help? Scientists are allowed to fail. Technologists are not. This creates risk averse environments, which are the enemy of innovation. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 28, 2016 so true Damian, agree- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 28, 2016 at UWA we're trying some small scale stuff then a pipeline - not really written up yet but modelled on
http://er.educause.edu/articles/2016/9/the-innovation-pipeline-managing-new-technologies
Agree with above comment on institutions failing to move innovations into the mainstream. In most US campuses support is provided to faculty during the process of development of teaching innovations, however little framework exist on majority of campuses to adopt these on a wider scale. Teaching innovations often become locked withing a course, subject area, a faculty or a department. In most cases campus groups simply do not have the staff and resources to continue development. I see a lot of T & L centers dedicating funds and resources into springing to life a subset of teaching innovations on campuses every year and most die withing several semesters due to lack of support and proper management. To go into mainstream projects need to have a well defined learning objectives and identified results. Most teaching innovations projects lack proper assessment and evaluation techniques and thus it is hard to prove their efficacy and argue for their mainstream adoption. Questions of ownership and intellectual property remain unresolved and are often .poorly articulated in the academy. Departments and groups who are traditionally charged with faculty development such as teaching and learning centers, edTech, instructional support and other groups are already overwhelmed and are simply not set up to lead teaching innovation into mainstream. There is often a tension in these groups in terms of providing professional development around edTech and online learning needs based on existing best practices vs. encouraging and leading teaching innovations. Some institutions resort to partnerships with external vendors and agencies for both professional development and project management support for initiatives with focus on teaching innovations. This approach also works better when the campus does not have adequate internal resources to support emerging tech into the Teaching and Learning environment. These partnerships sometimes work better in terms of leading projects from an idea to the complete product solution. Campuses have to really re-think their priorities, staff, resources to be successful in scaling teaching innovations. - mayaig mayaig Sep 28, 2016This in my opinion is one of the key issues that hamper the adoption of technologies. It is exceedingly difficult for some reason to really show quantitative data that map to qualitiative data about the value of newer instructional approaches mediated by technology that are scalable across classes and institutions. The author above points out that that robust assessment is the key to marketing the approach and it is difficult to get faculty to invest time if we cannot show them some ROI. They may not ask for things like ROI, but they mean ROI when they ask about why and how to do anything while maintaining their regular work. - sunay.palsole sunay.palsole Sep 29, 2016There's also an issue about planning for success and to move away from treating everything as a project. - nwitt nwitt Oct 2, 2016Agree that there is a challenge in scaling innovation. While there are many examples of innovative pedagogy, next goals must be scaling and integrating at institutional scale. Some relevant examples include, Kenyon Essentials Project, https://cip.kenyon.edu/essentials; Virginia Commonwealth University QEP plan on Connected learning, http://sacs.vcu.edu/quality-enhancement-plan/, Digital Learning at Keuka College,
https://www.keuka.edu/academics/digital-learning - rebeccad rebeccad Oct 2, 2016

This should be folded in with the larger Innovation discussion. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 31, 2016
Scaling Evidence-Based Methods Across Disciplines
Evidence-based methods for learning refer to practices that have fostered improved learning outcomes, as demonstrated in controlled trials and pilots. Metrics and analytics that reflect greater student retention and performance across an entire course, program, or institution can illuminate the efficacy and obstacles of specific pedagogical and technological implementations. However, institutions are challenged with scaling their successful practices as the process and evaluation of teaching and learning in one discipline does not always translate to others. Current approaches to scaling effective pedagogies are too often based on anecdotal evidence, when one success story is amplified with the assumption that it can be simply applied in other learning contexts. Compounding this challenge is the notion that scaling is not synonymous with mere duplication: identifying ways to adapt teaching and learning practices for different learners, course levels, program types, and institutional settings requires thorough analysis of the evidence followed by deep thinking around making appropriate modifications for other courses. Additionally, many teaching and learning methods are grounded in habit — educators and institutional leaders may grow complacent as cultivating real change can be a time-consuming, confusing, and expensive process. - Sam Sam Oct 3, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016 I think t & L is habitual but also more than that- for many academics/faculty their discipline is thir most powerful culture including how they were inducted into the discipline or profession
My comments here relate to the fact that in Health Professions Education there is often a feel that if it wasn't done in health professions or a specific discipline then it may not be effective in blank education. Totally unreasonable. I do think it would be great to find ways to be able to move the evidence around, and stop the silo's. How is my question? (- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016)


Student Authentication
While this is by no means a new challenge, verifying the identity of students and the authenticity of their work will continue to be a challenge for both online and traditional programs in higher education. Until easy, cheap systems exist to verify the person getting the credential is the person doing the work in a course, online learning in particular will continue to be viewed with skepticism on campus and in the workplace. Wolverton's August 28, 2016 article in the Chronicle of Higher Education documented how the cheating economy is transforming in step with advances in online education (article here). This situation indicates that student authentication will continue to be a significant challenge in the future. The broad language in the U.S. Higher Education Opportunity Act that requires "processes" but fails to provide criteria by which the processes could be measured, has created a situation where commissions accrediting institutions of higher education use similarly vague language to establish guidelines and assess compliance (e.g., NWCCU standard 2.D.14 found in the Standards for Accreditation. - elizabeth.barrie elizabeth.barrie Sep 30, 2016We've seen the rise of several platforms to prevent cheating, such as Proctor U, Proctorio, each of which use a different strategy to curb cheating ranging from a live person watching on the other end to sophisticated algorithms that detect suspicious behavior. This industry is so new that we may see a lot of change in the technologies used to deter cheating. - deone.zell deone.zell Oct 1, 2016

Student Demographic Changes
The march of time is helping expand the use of technology in education. Consider Millennials, the famous/notorious net.generation, weaned on the Web and matured through YouTube. (We can take as given that this is a skewed vision, one with plenty of exceptions and issues, while also noting the general tendency of technology use to be inversely correlated with age) Those youngsters are no longer the scary traditional-age undergraduate student, but are rising staff and faculty, with even some administrators. Their greater acceptance of technology (generally) should make them more comfortable (generally) with using technology at their institutions.
They have to figure out how to teach and support their successors, Generation Z/The Homeland Generation.
On the flip side, technology-resisting senior faculty and staff are aging out of the profession into retirement or death.
Short version: like the song says, time is on our side. (If you want evidence for the age-tech dynamic, there's plenty of research. For example. Another example.)- bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Sep 29, 2016- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 2, 2016 [Editor's Note: Moved here from RQ3.] Harnessing the Power of Learning through Diversity
The typical college students is not a late teen,early twenty something enrolled in full-time, residential program. We need to leverage the diverse experiences our students bring to the classroom while also respecting the differences in their digital literacy or technology access.- mreese mreese Oct 4, 2016 [Editor's Note: "Harnessing the Power" combined with Demographic Changes because of overlap.]


Supporting Adjunct Faculty through Technology Deployment
Blended learning environments that harness adaptive learning technologies have proven to enhance student outcomes, while digital courseware can help students succeed in high-enrollment, general education courses. Part-time and adjunct faculty are often tasked with teaching introductory and online classes; however, institutions do not always provide them with access to the same tools, resources, and training afforded to full-time and tenured faculty. Further, due to their temporary employment status, adjuncts face unique challenges in implementing new technologies and redesigning curricula to implement effective pedagogies. By understanding the needs of part-time and adjunct instructors and taking steps to support them, colleges and universities can help these populations improve their teaching to benefit more students.
Indeed. This is also an ethical charge. - Sam Sam Oct 3, 2016
There's an opportunity here for developing scalable and inter-institutional technology tools and practices for adjuncts. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Sep 30, 2016
There are some promising examples of programs that prepare faculty, including adjuncts, for readiness to teach online. The Online Learning Consortium has Online Teaching Certificate Program. It is a sequence of one foundation course and three electives with a focus upon online learning effectiveness best practices. Individual colleges and universities also have certification programs along these lines. For example, Valencia College (FL) offers specific concentrations within their faculty development program, such as Blackboard Fundamentals and Quality Matters. OLC Certification Program Valencia College Certifications & Programs - Lawrence.Miller Lawrence.Miller Oct 2, 2016

Sustaining Innovation through Leadership Changes
Sustainability for long-term success is a vital consideration when developing a new program, especially as external factors such as funding and leadership are prone to change. However, the process for preparing for the unknown is not always well-defined, nor is it currently the norm at colleges and universities. Planning for and implementing innovative approaches to improve student success at higher education institutions requires dedication from leadership, faculty, and staff. Unfortunately, leadership vacancies or transitions can result in project delays or hinder the development and growth of programs to effectively meet student needs. Turnover in key institutional positions can also render promising initiatives without a driver, especially if a clear innovation strategy is not implemented to propel sustainable change and other participants do not feel a sense of ownership over the program. Institutions must identify successful strategies for making continued progress on promising innovations in the face of transitioning governance.
Very true. It can be an issue internal to a unit (department head transition) or external (dean, president change). - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Sep 30, 2016 Higher Education's Organizational Structure The existing structure, whether organizational silos or credit hours, enforces the status quo and stifles innovation, even if the culture is ready to change; so knowledge of change management and conscious application about the diffusion of innovations models may be helpful. [Editor's Note: Combined here with Sustaining Innovation.]

Teaching Complex Thinking
It is essential for learners people both to understand the networked world in which they are growing up and also — through complex thinking — to learn how to use abstraction and decomposition when tackling complex tasks and to deploy heuristic reasoning to complex problems. Mastering modes of complex thinking does not make an impact in isolation; communication skills must also be mastered for complex thinking to be applied meaningfully. Indeed, the most effective leaders are outstanding communicators with a high level of social intelligence; their capacity to connect people with other people, using technologies to collaborate and leveraging data to support their ideas, requires an ability to understand the bigger picture and to make appeals that are based on logic, data, and instinct. While some aspects of this topic could be framed as similar to or overlapping “design thinking,” for the purposes of this report, the two are considered as distinct concepts. The term “complex thinking” refers to the ability to understand complexity, a skill that is needed to comprehend how systems work in order to solve problems, and can be used interchangeably with “computational thinking.” Teaching coding in is increasingly being viewed as a way to instill this kind of thinking in students as it combines deep computer science knowledge with creativity and problem-solving.- kevin_ashford_rowe kevin_ashford_rowe Aug 10, 2016I believe that, in many ways consistent almost with our 'lost' liberal arts tradition, it might be that as the world of work becomes increasingly challenged and uncertain, our role (as Universities anyway) might be to go back to teaching a range of skills (including complex thinking) that might better serve our graduates in the world of their future work. - dkernohan dkernohan Sep 20, 2016 almost a need for a move away from tightly work-focused provision.
But the politicians are hard to move - ole ole Sep 20, 2016If we stop telling students what to think, and focus more on teaching them how to think, whatever the future may hold for them, they will always have at their disposal an adaptable set of intellectual tools that will serve them well for the rest of their lives. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016(- rneuron rneuron Oct 2, 2016) - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 31, 2016

Technology-Enabled Learning and Workload of Faculty
While institutions are willing to promote technology enabled learning through various strategies such as innovation grants, and awards, institutional administrations sometimes fail to see the time needed for conversion of teaching materials and teaching to technology enabled learning- if they are to truly "transform" teaching and learning. Teaching online and teaching using technology, and for that matter student-centered teaching methods are time and resource intensive. In my views, a common factor that impedes the ground ( that is teaching instructors) from embracing technology enabled teaching and learning is the time and workload associated with that. While recognitions such as awards and grants are excellent extrinsic motivators, they do not address the basic need factors- which is time and resource. Institutions need to consider time off for online curriculum development or provision of additional supports - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016 sort of agree...learning design needs though to be seen as core activities for all academics with a teaching role rather than this being done in 'time off' - nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Sep 30, 2016. - MarwinBritto MarwinBritto Oct 1, 2016 Agreed. Furthermore, there is little incentive for pre-tenure track faculty to commit the extra time to teach more effectively since there is little reward or incentive to do so. In addition, some who write about these important experiences--in the scholarship of teaching and learning publications--find that these publications may not carry the same weight or rank as high as publications in their disciplines. Promotion/tenure processes need to evolve to reflect changing times and provide incentives to faculty who are willing to improve their teaching and provide scholarship in this regard. Lack of Time, Resources, and Skill A key barrier to adoption and increased use of digital learning resources and pedagogies is simply the fact that faculty do not have the time to learn the new technologies, develop the learning experiences, and learn to implement them. In some cases another key resources besides time is lacking - access to the tools and technologies needed. As mentioned at the end of the first sentence of this entry, learning to use a constant stream of new technologies and new ways to teaching using these technologies, is a major barrier to adoption. If faculty do not have the time or support (administrative support, cultural support, instructional design support, training) to learn to create learning experiences and use the new tools and techniques, they will simply not be used. - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016 teams and priorities are all rather than 'blame time.' [Editor's Note: Lack of Time discussion combined with discussion of Technology-Enabled Learning because of natural overlaps.]

Under-resourced Campus Infrastructure
Critical school infrastructures are under-resourced. Rather than encouraging researchers to build on and extend core resources, leverage shared file systems, and open accessible service APIs, institutions are narrowing their focus to what they perceive as the minimal subset of enterprise services they can afford to sustain. As a result, educators are often trying to design new, innovative learning models that must be integrated with outdated, pre-existing technology and learning management systems.
Long term LMS contracts that cost a fortune, providing out-dated solutions that are no longer developed and which stifle asset and information portability are the enemy of creativity and hold back innovation. You know who I am talking about.Is it any wonder that our innovators are moving to their own websites? - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016 If only schools would hire their own programmers and develop their own tools/use well curated open resources... - paulo.dantas paulo.dantas Oct 3, 2016 Austerity A large number of institutions are facing fierce financial pressures which could cramp technological development. Causes include demographic shifts (declining under-20 population), reductions in governmental support (for example, American states to public universities), and aftershocks from the 2008 financial crash. Colleges, universities, libraries, and museums have taken many different steps in response, such as implementing hiring freezes, encouraging early retirement, faculty and staff cuts (which I've dubbed "queen sacrifices"), and delays to infrastructure support.
Will austerity drive some institutions to embrace online learning as a cost-saving measure (although it rarely is), or to win more students? Or will it lead to technology funding cuts? Will faculty and staff retrench or explore?
- gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Sep 22, 2016 online isn't cheaper of course but it changes the model - ie most investment is 'up front' , then it only works if the ROI is reasonably quick that implies being able to predict the market for a course (and we know how good universities are at that! (not)
Will campuses turn even more of their faculty into adjuncts (sessionals, in Canada), leading to a transformation in how educational technology works? - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Sep 19, 2016 Just to note, I agree with this wholeheartedly. I just list it as a pressure driving change more so than a challenge. But Bryan is right, it cuts boths ways! - david.thomas david.thomas Sep 19, 2016 Also agree that this is a pressure - and technology is often flagged as a means of professionalizing the academic role to allow for these changes in employment practice. - dkernohan dkernohan Sep 20, 2016
The Australian Government flagged a 20% cut to HE funding but hasn't set a date. Either way it is still on the table. It also plays into the whole UK/Australia HE conversation around fee differentiation and measuring HE Teacher excellence. - kevin_ashford_rowe kevin_ashford_rowe Sep 19, 2016
Well I was wondering when money was going to rear its ugly head. Surely this is the one factor that all too often impedes the adoption of all of the technologies we are looking at across all of our institutions? I have found it impossible to get funding for a "class set" of any kind of technology to scale up pilots, often conducted with a single device, so many potentially useful lines of enquiry ultimately grind to a halt. When money is forthcoming, it often takes so long, and I have to jump through so many administrative hoops, that the moment and momentum is long gone, by the time the equipment does finally arrive. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016Online courses that, once created, can run and run with little or no human intervention, providing "education" to a unlimited number of students for an unlimited amount of time, 24/7 has to work out cheaper than the conventional model don't they?! They place little or no burden on physical infrastructure, they are, theoretically at least, borderless, and infinitely profitable even at a discounted rate. Of course you could give them away for free, but even then you could plaster them with ads to recoup your initial outlay. And call them MOOCs. - damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Sep 22, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016 well even with accredited/credentialled and well developed courses that are entirely digital, the business models are different ie more upfont investment requiring and good throughput of students numbers to provide ROI- probably at least 2 years. [Editor's Note: Discussion combined with Under-resourced Campus Infrastructure.]


Combined with Existing RQ3 Trends


Learning Spaces for Technology-Enabled Learning
The positive impact of technology enabled learning could be enhanced when this is in tandem to student centered learning pedagogies, which often could mean smaller group learning. However, the learning spaces in more established institutions could be still catered towards lecture theatres. This could restrict the successful use of technology enabled learning as well as student centered pedagogies - nacha_sockalingam nacha_sockalingam Sep 30, 2016. Lecture tool technology such as Echo360 (http://echo360.com/lecture-tools-resource-hub) helps bring active learning and student engagement in large lecture halls, students interacting actively with the content and with each others. Blended learning design, or flipped classroom, can also bring a more learner centered approach, even with large group in a lecture hall. Here are 2 interesting articles showing enhances learning in these contexts. http://www.rsc.org/eic/2015/03/flipped-classroom-teaching - agermain agermain Oct 1, 2016 [Editor's Note: This fits in nicely with RQ3 Trend "Rethinking Learning Spaces" discussion.]

Lack of an Innovation Culture
A culture of innovation in an institution is needed to foster and support meaningful uses and adoption of digital learning.This means that administrative support is necessary from the president of an institution down to the department chairs. Administrators and leaders must create and promote a culture of innovative teaching to include teaching with new digital tools. Administrative support of a culture of innovation should be tolerant of mistakes and failures when trying new tools and techniques. Also negatively impacting upon a culture of innovation, in my experience, is the resistance to change exhibited by many academics who value traditional ways of teaching and learning over newer tools and techniques. - doug.hearrington doug.hearrington Oct 2, 2016
I view this as a significant challenge on college campuses. - mayaig mayaig Oct 2, 2016
Consumer Technologies and expectations
It is likely that many students will have better wifi, connectivity, gaming controls, screen casting devices at home than can be provided at scale in the University. Student expectations therefore will be high when it comes to learning technology. The reliance on boring VLE presence will further compound a sense that the University may well be plying catch up for some time to come [[user:DaveP|1475440595]- deone.zell deone.zell Oct 2, 2016
Innovation Culture requires that faculty, students, and staff adapt to integrating technologies into their process. Staff are often left out of this equation, but academic support units, for example, can use video conferencing for appointments, share accommodation letters through secure cloud storage, and timeshift advice through digital videos. Some institutions have already made these changes, but other lag behind. - rebeccad rebeccad Oct 2, 2016 [Editor's Note: This seems to be the other side of the coin of the existing RQ3 trend "Adapting to Cultures of Innovation" so it is being added to those discussions in RQ3.] Excessive Reliance on Top-Down Processes
For many of the most exciting possibilities - learning analytics, personalization of learning, design of novel learning spaces - students are at their center, and good design principles indicate that they should be (at least) equal partners in the driver's seat. However, initiatives and payoffs tend to follow a top-down model: administrators to faculty to students. This is particularly visible in many proposals for learning analytic systems: design priority is given to administrators, and secondarily to faculty, but students are just asked to trust that they will be aided by the system, with little to no control over its design, the questions it might answer, or the uses of their data. New approaches that go beyond "have a student on the committee" will need to be developed for these systems to be ethically and effectively implemented.- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 2, 2016 - gilly.salmon gilly.salmon Oct 5, 2016 [Editor's Note: This seems to be the other side of the coin of the existing RQ3 trend "Adapting to Cultures of Innovation" so it is being added to those discussions in RQ3.]